All About Chemistry

Agranulositosis


Agranulocytosis is a condition when the bone marrow fails to form granulocytes, which are a type of white blood cell that fights infection. Agranulocytosis must be treated immediately because it can cause serious, even life-threatening complications.

Granulocytes are a group of white blood cells consisting of neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils. Of the three types of cells, neutrophils are the most abundant in the blood. Therefore, neutrophils are used as a benchmark for the diagnosis of agranulocytosis.

Under normal circumstances, the bone marrow is able to form 1,500 neutrophils per microliter of blood. Whereas in agranulocytosis, the absolute neutrophil count is less than 100 per microliter of blood. In this condition, the body will be more susceptible to infection.

Causes of Agranulocytosis

Agranulocytosis can occur due to genetic disorders that are inherited from parents, so the problem has been present since birth. Congenital agranulocytosis is also known as Kostmann syndrome .

In addition to genetic disorders, agranulocytosis can also be caused by certain conditions. The following are some of the conditions that can cause agranulocytosis:

  • Autoimmune diseases, such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis
  • Diseases of the bone marrow, such as aplastic anemia , leukemia, and myelodysplastic syndromes
  • Viral infections, such as viral hepatitis, HIV, and cytomegalovirus (CMV)
  • Bacterial infections, such as typhoid fever and tuberculosis
  • Parasitic infections, such as malaria
  • Exposure to chemical compounds, such as arsenic or mercury
  • Use of certain medications, such as antipsychotic drugs, malaria drugs, NSAIDs , chemotherapy for cancer, and medications for hyperthyroidism

Symptoms of Agranulocytosis

People who have agranulocytosis will be susceptible to infection because of the low number of white blood cells in the body that are responsible for fighting bacteria, viruses, or other disease-causing microorganisms. Symptoms that can appear when a person has agranulotosis are:

  • Fever
  • Weak
  • Dizzy
  • Coughs and colds
  • Hard to breathe
  • Shivering and sweating
  • Rash on the skin
  • Sore throat
  • Canker sores that don't get better
  • Pain in the bones

When to go to the doctor

Consult a doctor if you experience any of the symptoms listed above, especially if you have a condition that can cause agranulocytosis. Also, check with your doctor if you have frequent infections or if your infection is difficult to heal.

Agranulocytosis is a fairly serious condition. If not treated immediately can lead to sepsis and death.

Diagnosis Agranulositosis

To diagnose, the doctor will ask about the symptoms experienced, the patient's medical history, then proceed with a physical examination. If a patient is suspected of having agranulocytosis, the doctor will perform the following additional tests to confirm the diagnosis:

  • Complete blood cell count, to check the total number of blood cells, especially white blood cells
  • An absolute neutrophil count, as a follow-up to a complete blood cell count
  • Bone marrow aspiration , to check the condition of the tissue that produces blood cells
  • Genetic testing, to determine the possibility of a genetic disease that causes agranulocytosis

Agranulocytosis Treatment

Treatment of agranulocytosis will be tailored to the cause. Some treatment options that can be given by doctors to treat agranulocytosis are:

  • Giving antibiotics
    Antibiotics will be prescribed by the doctor depending on the severity of the infection. In patients with agranulocytosis with very low neutrophil counts, antibiotics can be given prior to infection to reduce the risk of severe infection.
  • Injecting granulocyte olony- timulating actor (G-CSF)
    G-CSF is given by injection under the skin of the patient. This is done to stimulate the bone marrow to produce more granulocytes.
  • Administration of immunosuppressants
    If agranulocytosis is caused by an autoimmune disease, the doctor will prescribe drugs that suppress the body's excessive immune response.
  • Transplant umsum reset
    If it can not be treated with medication, the doctor will perform a bone marrow transplant . This procedure is generally performed on patients under 40 years of age with good organ function.

If the agranulocytosis is caused by certain medications, the doctor may stop the medication, adjust the dose, or replace the medication with an alternative.

Complications of Agranulocytosis

If not treated properly, agranulositis can lead to sepsis . Sepsis is an infection reaction that can make blood pressure drop drastically and damage to many organs. This condition is a dangerous condition and can lead to death.

Prevention of Agranulocytosis

Agranulocytosis cannot be prevented, unless the condition is caused by replaceable drugs. The important thing that needs to be prevented in the condition of agranulocytosis is infection.

You can reduce your risk of infection by avoiding crowded places and foods that have the potential to be exposed to bacteria, such as unwashed or peeled fruit or vegetables. In addition, you also need to pay more attention to the cleanliness of your body.

Aphasia


Aphasia is a communication disorder caused by damage to the brain. This disorder can affect the ability to speak and write, as well as the ability to understand words when reading or listening.

Generally people with aphasia will be wrong in choosing and stringing words into a correct sentence. However, this condition does not affect the level of intelligence and memory of the sufferer.

Aphasia can occur suddenly after a patient has had a stroke or head injury. However, aphasia can also develop gradually if it is caused by a brain tumor or dementia.

Causes of Aphasia

Aphasia is not a disease, but rather a symptom that indicates damage to the part of the brain that regulates language and communication.

One of the most common causes of brain damage that triggers aphasia is stroke. When you have a stroke, the lack of blood flow to the brain causes brain cell death or damage to the part of the brain that processes language. Approximately 25-40% of stroke patients will suffer from aphasia.

Brain damage from a head injury, brain tumor , or encephalitis can also cause aphasia. In these cases, usually aphasia will be accompanied by other disorders, such as impaired memory and impaired consciousness.

In addition, aphasia can occur due to diseases that cause decreased function of brain cells, such as dementia and Parkinson's disease . In this condition, aphasia will develop gradually as the disease progresses.

Gejala Afasia

Symptoms of aphasia can vary, depending on the part of the brain that is damaged and the extent of the damage. Based on the symptoms that appear, aphasia can be divided into several types, namely:

  • Wernicke's aphasia (receptive)
    Wernicke's aphasia is known as receptive aphasia or sensory aphasia . Wernicke's aphasia is usually caused by damage to the brain in the left center. In this aphasia, the sufferer will have difficulty understanding or understanding the words that are heard or read. As a result, the patient will issue sentences or words that are also difficult for the other person to understand.
  • Broca's aphasia (expressive)
    In Broca's aphasia or expressive aphasia or motor aphasia , the patient knows what he wants to convey to the other person, but has difficulty in expressing it. Broca's aphasia is usually caused by damage to the brain on the left front.
  • Global
    aphasia Global aphasia is the most severe aphasia and usually occurs when a person has just had a stroke . Global aphasia is usually caused by extensive damage to the brain. People with global aphasia will have difficulty even not being able to read, write, and understand other people's words.
  • Primary progressive aphasia
    This condition causes a gradual decline in the ability to read, write, speak, and understand conversation. Primary progressive aphasia is rare and difficult to treat.
  • Anomic
    aphasia Patients with anomic aphasia or anomia often have difficulty choosing and finding the right words when writing and speaking.

When to go to the doctor

Since aphasia is a symptom of a more serious condition, see your doctor immediately if you experience any of the above symptoms. A doctor's examination is needed to prevent the condition from getting worse and prevent complications.

Diagnosis of Aphasia

To diagnose aphasia, the doctor will ask the patient's symptoms as well as the patient's and family's medical history, either directly to the patient or to the family accompanying the patient.

After that, a thorough physical examination will be carried out including an examination of the nervous system .

To confirm the diagnosis, the doctor will also perform several supporting examinations below:

  • Communication
    assessment This examination aims to measure the patient's ability to write, read, speak, understand conversation, and verbal expression.
  • Brain
    scan Scanning aims to detect any damage to the brain and see how severe the damage is. The scan can be done with an MRI , CT scan , or using a positron emission tomography (PET scan).

Aphasia Treatment

Treatment of aphasia depends on the type of aphasia, the part of the brain that is damaged, the cause of the brain damage, and the age and condition of the patient. If the brain damage is mild, the aphasia may improve on its own. If the condition is severe enough, treatment can be carried out by the following methods:

Speech therapy

Speech and language therapy sessions aim to improve communication and speaking skills. This therapy session should be done regularly. Speech therapy can be done using technology such as computer programs or applications. This therapy is recommended for patients with aphasia due to stroke.

Drugs

Some types of drugs can also be given by the doctor to help treat aphasia. The drugs given usually work by increasing blood flow to the brain, preventing further brain damage, and increasing the amount of chemical compounds that are reduced in the brain.

Operation

Surgical procedures may also be performed if the aphasia is caused by a brain tumor. Surgery aims to remove tumors in the brain. This procedure is expected to help with aphasia.

Complications Aphasia

Because it affects the ability to communicate, aphasia can have an impact on the daily life of the sufferer, including in terms of work and personal relationships. If not treated properly, aphasia can also lead to anxiety disorders , depression , and feelings of isolation.

Aphasia Prevention

There is no sure way to prevent aphasia. The best thing that can be done is to prevent conditions that can cause aphasia. Prevention can be done by living a healthy lifestyle, such as:

  • Quit smoking
  • Avoid excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages
  • Maintain ideal body weight and avoid obesity
  • Do exercise regularly for at least 30 minutes every day
  • Keeping the mind active, for example by reading or writing

Adenomiosis


Adenomyosis or adenomyosis is a condition that occurs when the surface lining of the uterine cavity (endometrium) grows inside the muscular wall of the uterus (myometrium). Under normal conditions, the endometrial tissue should only line the surface of the uterine cavity.

This condition can be experienced by women in all age groups, but is more common in the age of 40-50 years. Although generally considered harmless, adenomyosis can adversely affect the sufferer's quality of life.

When a person has adenomyosis, the endometrial tissue can still function normally. However, due to adenomyosis, the uterus will enlarge, and cause heavy bleeding and pain in the lower abdomen.

Symptoms of Adenomyosis

Some people with adenomyosis do not experience any symptoms. Sometimes there can be discomfort in the lower abdomen or pelvis, but only for a moment. While in other patients, adenomyosis can cause symptoms, namely:

  • Heavy and prolonged bleeding during menstruation ( menorrhagia ).
  • Menstrual pain ( dysmenorrhea ).
  • A feeling of pressure in the lower abdomen or pelvis, due to the enlargement of the uterus.

When to go to the doctor

Actinic Keratosis (Solar Keratosis)


Solar keratosis or actinikeratosis is a condition in which the skin becomes rough , thickened, and scaly, due to exposure to sunlight for a long time or use of tanning to discolor the skin .

Solar keratosis is generally experienced by someone aged 40 years and over and people who are often active in the sun for a long time. Actinic keratosis develops slowly and causes no symptoms. Although rare, this condition has the potential to cause skin cancer .

Becauses Actinic Keratosis Solar Keratosis)

Excessive exposure to sunlight (ultraviolet) is the main cause of actinic keratosis. Patients with solar keratosis will be more common in people who often do activities in direct sunlight and people who like to use tanning beds or skin blackening tools .

Risk factors actinic keratosis

Actinic keratosis can affect anyone. Even so, a person is more at risk of developing the condition if:

  • More than 40 years old.
  • Stay in a place that is exposed to sunlight.
  • Have sensitive skin type .
  • Have a weak immune system, for example due to cancer , HIV/AIDS, and the use of chemotherapy drugs or immunosuppressant drugs .

Symptoms Actinic Keratosis Solar Keratosis)

Breast Abscess


A breast ulcer or breast abscess is a lump in the breast that contains pus. Breast abscesses are usually caused by infection. This disease is often experienced by breastfeeding mothers.

If you have a breast abscess, breastfeeding mothers need to get treatment immediately. But don't worry, people with breast abscesses can continue to breastfeed their children with uninfected breasts.

Causes of Breast Abscess

Inflammation of the breast tissue ( mastitis ) that is not treated immediately or caused by a blockage in the breast gland, is the main cause of accumulation of pus ( abscess ) in the breast.

Breast infections can occur for several reasons. One of them is the entry of bacteria from the baby's mouth into the milk ducts through cracks in the nipple. Although it is more common in breastfeeding mothers, non-breastfeeding women and a small percentage of men can develop a breast abscess as well.

There are several factors that increase a person's risk of developing a breast abscess, including:

  • Having piercings in the nipples
  • Have a smoking habit
  • Suffering from diabetes
  • Suffering from HIV/AIDS
  • Have had breast surgery in the last 2 months
  • Have you ever had a breast infection?
  • seniors

Signs and Symptoms of a Breast Abscess

A breast abscess is a lump under the skin that is soft to the touch and can be moved. However, these lumps cannot be palpated if the abscess grows deeper in the breast. Breast abscesses can also usually appear with ulcers in the breast .

Symptoms experienced by people with breast abscess can vary depending on the severity. If you have a breast abscess, a person may experience the following symptoms :

  • Breasts look red, swollen, and feel
  • If palpated, there are lumps that do not disappear after feeding.
  • Discharge of pus from the nipple.
  • Breast pain continues to interfere with activities.
  • Breast pain causes the mother to be unable to breastfeed her child.
  • Fever for more than 3 days and does not improve despite treatment.

When to go to the doctor

Brain Abscess


A brain abscess or cerebral abscess is a buildup of pus due to a brain infection. This condition can cause swelling of the brain. A brain abscess is often caused by a bacterial or fungal infection in the brain triggered by a head injury or infection in other body tissues that spreads to the brain.  

Brain abscess is often characterized by the appearance of a severe headache, fever, seizures, and even impaired consciousness. This condition is quite dangerous and requires prompt and appropriate treatment.

Causes of Brain Abscess

The main cause of brain abscess is the presence of a bacterial or fungal infection in the brain tissue. These bacterial or fungal infections can come from direct infection in the brain, head injuries, including surgical procedures on the brain, and the spread of infection to other organs through the blood.

The type of bacteria that most often causes the accumulation of pus in the brain comes from the Bacteriodes, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus , or Enterobacter types While other types of pathogens that most often cause brain abscess formation are the fungus Aspergillus   or the parasite Toxoplasma gondii .

There are several conditions that can increase the risk of brain abscess, namely:

  • Have a weak immune system, for example due to suffering from HIV/AIDS , cancer, or using immunosuppressant drugs
  • Have a middle ear infection ( otitis media ), infection of the ear bones ( mastoiditis ), sinusitis , tooth abscess, or meningitis
  • Suffered from a head injury , skull fracture, or had surgery on the head
  • Suffering from lung infection, endocarditis , infection in the abdominal cavity, pelvic infection, or skin infection
  • Suffering from congenital heart disease (CHD) or abnormalities in the pulmonary blood vessels or pulmonary arteriovenous fistula

Symptoms of Brain Abscess

Symptoms of a brain abscess can vary, depending on the size and location of the abscess. Symptoms that appear can develop slowly or quickly.

Here are some of the symptoms of a brain abscess:

Anus Abscess


An anal abscess is a pus-filled lump that forms in the anus. An anal abscess causes pain, especially when sitting or having a bowel movement.

Anal abscess is generally characterized by a small red bump in the anal canal. In some cases, abscesses can also appear in the rectum (the end of the large intestine that connects to the anus).

If not treated immediately, an anal abscess can lead to the formation of an abnormal channel in the anus (anal fistula ). This condition will make the pain worse, even causing difficulty controlling bowel movements.

ymptoms of Anus Abscess

A common symptom of an anal abscess is a stabbing pain in the anus or rectum. This pain persists and gets worse when sitting, coughing, and defecating.

Other symptoms that arise from an anal abscess are:

Agoraphobia


Agoraphobia or agoraphobia is an excessive fear or anxiety of places or situations that make the sufferer feel panicked, embarrassed, helpless, or trapped. Generally, agoraphobia occurs when the sufferer has experienced one or more panic attacks.

Situations or places that can cause a phobia in each person is different. Some people are afraid of certain conditions or situations, such as crowds, others are afraid of more specific things, such as blood or certain animals.

People with agoraphobia will feel excessive fear and anxiety in several places and conditions, such as public places, closed spaces, crowds, and conditions that make it difficult to get help. Usually, people with agoraphobia need relatives or friends to accompany them to public places.

Causes of Agoraphobia

Agoraphobia generally arises when a person has experienced more than one panic attack in a certain place or condition. This causes agoraphobia sufferers to fear and avoid the place or condition.

The exact cause of agoraphobia is not known. This condition can be experienced by a person since childhood, but is more common in women who are teenagers or young adults (less than 35 years).

Risk factors for agoraphobia

There are several factors that can increase a person's risk of developing agoraphobia, namely:

  • There is a fear of being the victim of a crime, having an accident, or contracting a certain disease
  • Trauma from previous experiences, such as losing a family member or experiencing torture
  • Have had another mental disorder, such as depression, bulimia, or anorexia nervosa
  • Suffering from a disorder in the part of the brain that controls fear
  • Have another type of phobia
  • Has an anxious and nervous nature
  • Have a family member who suffers from agoraphobia
  • Having an unhappy relationship with a partner, such as having a partner who is too restrictive

Symptoms of Agoraphobia

The main symptoms of agoraphobia are fear and anxiety that arise every time the sufferer thinks about, experiences, or is in certain places or conditions, such as:

  • Being in an open space, such as a large parking lot, park, or mall
  • Being in an enclosed space, such as a movie theater, meeting room, or elevator
  • Being outside the house alone
  • Using public transportation, such as bus or train
  • Waiting in line or being in a crowd

These symptoms will disappear when the sufferer stops thinking or gets out of the place and condition.

The fear and anxiety experienced by agoraphobia sufferers will generally cause physical, cognitive (thought patterns), and behavioral symptoms. The following is an explanation of the three symptoms:

Physical symptoms

Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome


ARDS or acute respiratory distress syndrome is a severe respiratory disorder caused by a buildup of fluid in the alveoli or the small air sacs in the lungs. The main symptoms are severe shortness of breath and difficulty breathing.

ARDS is often caused by a critical illness, such as sepsis or severe pneumonia. One of the causes of pneumonia which is currently becoming a pandemic is the Corona virus (COVID-19). According to a number of studies, some COVID-19 patients may develop ARDS in the course of their illness.

ARDS is an emergency condition that threatens the life of the sufferer, so it needs to be treated quickly and appropriately.

Penyebab Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

ARDS is caused by damage to the alveoli due to the seepage of fluid from the capillaries in the lungs into the alveoli. Alveoli are air sacs in the lungs that function to deliver oxygen to the blood and remove carbon dioxide from the blood.

Under normal conditions, the membrane that protects the capillaries keeps fluid in the blood vessels. However, in ARDS, severe injury or illness causes damage to these protective membranes, allowing fluid to leak into the alveoli.

This buildup of fluid makes the lungs unable to fill with air, so the supply of oxygen to the bloodstream and body is reduced. This lack of oxygen supply will cause the cessation of organ function, including the brain and kidneys. If left unchecked, this condition will threaten the life of the sufferer.

Some of the conditions and diseases that can cause ARDS are:

  • Sepsis
  • Injuries to the head or chest, for example from a collision or accident
  • Severe pneumonia (lung infection)
  • Burns
  • Inhalation of harmful substances, such as concentrated fumes or chemical fumes
  • Choking or near drowning
  • Receiving a blood transfusion with a large volume of blood
  • Pancreatitis

Faktor Risiko Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

Achondroplasia


Achondroplasia is a bone growth disorder characterized by a stunted and disproportionate body. This condition is one of the most common bone growth disorders.

Patients with achondroplasia have a normal breastbone size, but the size of the arms and legs is short, causing the patient to have a stunted body ( dwarfism ).


The average height of adult male patients with achondroplasia is 131 cm, while that of adult women is 124 cm. Despite having different physical conditions, achondroplasia sufferers have a normal level of intelligence like people in general.

Causes of Achondroplasia

Achondroplasia occurs due to a genetic mutation in the FGFR3 gene, the gene that produces the Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 3 protein This protein plays an important role in the process of ossification or the process of changing cartilage into hard bone.

Mutations in the FGFR3 gene cause the protein to not function properly, thereby interfering with the transformation of cartilage into hard bone. As a result, the bones grow shorter and have an abnormal shape, especially the bones in the arms and legs.

FGFR3 gene mutations in patients with achondroplasia can occur in two ways, namely:

Spontaneous mutations

Lung Abscess


A lung abscess is a bacterial infection of the lungs that causes the appearance of pus. The main symptom of a lung abscess is a cough with phlegm. Sputum that is released often contains blood or pus, and smells bad.

Lung abscesses are treated with antibiotics. Patients are required to take antibiotics for several weeks until the infection subsides. Patients who are well treated have a high cure rate. On the other hand, if not treated properly, this disease can lead to complications or even death.

Causes of Lung Abscess

The main cause of lung abscess is the emergence of infection in the lung tissue due to liquid or food containing bacteria directly into the lungs. This event occurs when a person is unconscious due to the influence of alcohol or drugs, especially tranquilizers.

In addition to being caused by foreign fluid entering the lungs, lung abscesses can be a complication of other diseases, both inside and outside the lungs, namely:

  • The presence of blockage of the airways in the lungs, due to tumors or enlarged glands in the lungs
  • Pneumonia , specifically pneumonia caused by bacteria
  • Bronchiectasis , namely widening, thickening, and damage to the respiratory tract tissue before the lungs (bronchus)
  • Cystis fibrosis , which is a respiratory disease that causes the mucus in the respiratory tract or phlegm to become thicker. The thicker mucus fluid will block the flow of breath from or to the lungs, so that it can trigger an infection that forms phlegm
  • Peritonitis, which is an infection of the lining of the abdominal cavity (peritoneum)
  • Endocarditis, which is an infection of the inner wall of the heart

Lung Abscess Risk Factors

Tooth Abscess


A tooth abscess is the formation of a pus-filled pocket or lump on the tooth. Tooth abscess is caused by a bacterial infection. This condition can appear around the root of the tooth or in the gums.

Bacterial infections that cause tooth abscesses generally occur in people with poor dental hygiene and health. The pus that collects in the lump will gradually increase in pain.

This disease can be prevented by brushing your teeth regularly or flossing your teeth. To avoid tooth decay and abscess, it is recommended to regularly check your teeth to  the dentist .

Tooth abscesses are divided into several types. The following are the three most common types of tooth abscess:

  • Periapical abscess, which is an abscess that appears at the tip of the root of the tooth.
  • Periodontal abscess, which is an abscess that appears on the gum next to the tooth root and can spread to the surrounding tissue and bone.
  • Gingival abscess, which is an abscess that appears on the gum.

Symptoms of Tooth Abscess

The main symptom of a tooth abscess is the appearance of pain that can come on suddenly and can get worse in the tooth or gums. Some of the other symptoms that can be felt by people with tooth abscess are:

Retinal detachment


Retinal detachment is an eye disease caused by the detachment of the thin layer inside the eye called the retina. This condition is classified as an emergency and can cause permanent blindness if not treated immediately.

The retina of the eye is an important part that functions to process the light that is captured by the eye. Once captured, the light is converted into an electrical signal and transmitted to the brain. These signals are then processed in the brain and interpreted as images seen by the eye.

If the retina is detached from its position, of course vision will be disturbed. This visual impairment can occur partially or completely, depending on how much of the retina is detached. Retinal detachment can happen to anyone, especially people over the age of 50.

Symptoms of Retinal Ablation

Retinal detachment or retinal detachment is painless. Loss of vision can occur suddenly, or be preceded by any of the following symptoms:

  • Black spots appear that appear to float in the vision ( floaters ).
  • Blurred vision or obscured by curtain -like shadows.
  • The field of view narrows .
  • Flash of light on vision (photopsia).

Causes of Retinal Ablation

Retinal detachment occurs when the retina of the eye detaches from the blood vessels that deliver oxygen and nutrients. The following are 3 conditions that can cause retinal detachment:

  • There is a small tear in the retina . This tear allows fluid in the center of the eyeball (vitreous fluid) to seep in and build up behind the retina. Fluid that accumulates will make the entire retinal layer detached from its base. In general, tears in the retina of the eye occur due to changes in tissue with age. People with short-sightedness (nearsightedness) or have had cataract surgery are also at risk for retinal tears.
  • Accumulation of vitreous fluid without a tear in the retina . This condition can be caused by injury, tumors, inflammation, and macular degeneration .
  • Scar tissue forms on the surface of the retina . This condition makes the retina retract and detach. This condition is more common in diabetics with poorly controlled blood sugar.

Retinal Ablation Risk Factors

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