Retinal detachment is an eye disease caused by the detachment of the thin layer inside the eye called the retina. This condition is classified as an emergency and can cause permanent blindness if not treated immediately.
The retina of the eye is an important part that functions to process the light that is captured by the eye. Once captured, the light is converted into an electrical signal and transmitted to the brain. These signals are then processed in the brain and interpreted as images seen by the eye.
If the retina is detached from its position, of course vision will be disturbed. This visual impairment can occur partially or completely, depending on how much of the retina is detached. Retinal detachment can happen to anyone, especially people over the age of 50.
Symptoms of Retinal Ablation
Retinal detachment or retinal detachment is painless. Loss of vision can occur suddenly, or be preceded by any of the following symptoms:
- Black spots appear that appear to float in the vision ( floaters ).
- Blurred vision or obscured by curtain -like shadows.
- The field of view narrows .
- Flash of light on vision (photopsia).
Causes of Retinal Ablation
Retinal detachment occurs when the retina of the eye detaches from the blood vessels that deliver oxygen and nutrients. The following are 3 conditions that can cause retinal detachment:
- There is a small tear in the retina . This tear allows fluid in the center of the eyeball (vitreous fluid) to seep in and build up behind the retina. Fluid that accumulates will make the entire retinal layer detached from its base. In general, tears in the retina of the eye occur due to changes in tissue with age. People with short-sightedness (nearsightedness) or have had cataract surgery are also at risk for retinal tears.
- Accumulation of vitreous fluid without a tear in the retina . This condition can be caused by injury, tumors, inflammation, and macular degeneration .
- Scar tissue forms on the surface of the retina . This condition makes the retina retract and detach. This condition is more common in diabetics with poorly controlled blood sugar.
There are a number of factors that increase a person's risk of developing retinal detachment, including:
- Over 50 years old.
- Have had a retinal detachment.
- Have a family member with the same disease.
- Have had a serious eye injury.
- Suffering from severe nearsightedness (myopia).
- Have had eye surgery , such as cataract surgery .
- Have had an eye disease, such as inflammation of the middle layer of the eye ( uveitis ).
Retina Ablation Diagnosis
To determine the diagnosis of retinal detachment, an ophthalmologist or ophthalmologist who specializes in vitreo- retinal will perform an ophthalmoscopy examination with a special tool to see the inside of the eye. If the ophthalmoscope cannot clearly observe the condition of the retina, for example due to bleeding in the eye, the doctor will order an ultrasound of the eye.
Retinal Ablation Treatment
Treatment for retinal detachment varies, depending on the patient's condition. If the retina is torn or perforated but has not yet been detached, the ophthalmologist can apply the following measures to improve vision and prevent the retina from detaching:
- cryopexy. This procedure is done by freezing the tear in the retina, so that the retina remains attached to the wall of the eye.
- Laser therapy (photocoagulation). The laser beam will burn the tissue around the retinal tear. The laser will also help the retina stay attached.
If the retina is detached, the doctor will treat it with surgery or surgery. The type of surgery performed depends on the severity of the patient's condition. These operations include:
- Pneumatic retinopexy . This procedure involves injecting a gas bubble into the eye, which will press the retina back into its normal position. This procedure is chosen if only a small portion of the retina is detached.
- Vitrectomy. In a vitrectomy , the doctor will remove the vitreous and tissue that is pulling on the retina. Then, a bubble of gas or silicone will be injected into the eye to hold the retina in position. Over time, gas bubbles will be replaced naturally by body fluids.
- Scleral Buckling . In this procedure, the doctor will place silicone from the outside of the white part of the eye (sclera). This silicone will bring the wall of the eyeball closer to the retina, so that the retina returns to its position. If the retinal detachment is very severe, silicone will be placed around the eye permanently. Even so, silicone will not block vision.
Retinal Ablation Prevention
Retinal detachment is not always preventable. However, the risk of retinal detachment can be reduced through the following steps:
- Immediately check with an ophthalmologist if floater s appear , light flashes, or there is any change in field of view.
- Routine eye examination at least once every year. Checks should be done more often if you have diabetes.
- Routinely control sugar levels and blood pressure, so that the condition of retinal blood vessels remains healthy.
- Use eye protection when exercising or doing activities that pose a risk of injuring the eyes.