All About Chemistry

Agonist Beta


Beta agonists or beta adrenergic agonists are a group of drugs used to relieve or control the symptoms of narrowing of the airways caused by asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This group of drugs is a type of bronchodilator drug .

Beta agonists work by activating beta-2 cell receptors, so that the muscles in the respiratory tract are more relaxed. That way, the previously narrowed respiratory tract will be wider, the flow of air in and out of the lungs will be smoother, and complaints, such as wheezing or difficulty breathing, can subside.

According to how it works, beta agonists are divided into 3 types, namely fast acting ( short acting beta agonist / SABA), slow acting ( long acting beta agonist / LABA), and very slow acting ( ultra long acting beta agonist / ultra LABA).

Fast-acting beta agonists can be used to treat asthma attacks or sudden narrowing of the airways. While slow acting beta agonists are used to prevent or reduce the frequency of recurrence of asthma or COPD .

Precautions Before Using Beta Agonists

Adenosine


Adenosine is a drug used to assist the process of cardiac radiology examinations in patients who are unable to carry out normal activities. This drug will usually be used with thallium-201.

In addition, this drug is also sometimes used in the treatment of certain heart rhythm disorders, such as supraventricular tachycardia.

Adenosine has a strong cardiac vasodilator (widening blood vessel) effect, resulting in smoother blood flow. In addition, adenosine also affects the electrical activity in the heart, so it can help restore regular heart rhythm.

Adenosine trademarks: Bio ATP, Lapibion, Neuro ATP, Vitap, Pro ATP

What is Adenosine

The groupPrescription drugs
CategoryVasodilator
BenefitAs an adjunct drug in cardiac radiology examination
Consumed byAdults and children
Adenosine for pregnant and lactating womenCategory C:  Animal studies have shown adverse effects on the fetus, but there are no controlled studies in pregnant women.

Drugs should only be used if the expected benefit outweighs the risk to the fetus.

Adenosine is not known to be absorbed into breast milk or not. If you are breastfeeding, do not use this medicine without consulting your doctor first.

Drug formInject

Precautions Before Using Adenosine

The following are some things you should pay attention to before using adenosine:

  • Tell your doctor about any allergies you have. Adenosine should not be used by patients who are allergic to this drug.
  • Tell your doctor if you have or have had asthma , sick sinus syndrome , QT prolongation syndrome, or AV block. Adenosine should not be given to patients with these conditions.
  • Tell your doctor if you have or have ever had heart disease , hypotension, heart attack , slow heart rate ( bradycardia ), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( COPD ), seizures, or anginal chest pain .
  • Tell your doctor if you are pregnant, breastfeeding, or planning a pregnancy.
  • Tell your doctor if you are taking certain medications, supplements or herbal products,
  • See your doctor right away if you experience a drug allergic reaction , overdose, or serious side effect after using adenosine.

Adenosine Dosage and Usage

Adenosine will be injected into a vein (intravenous / IV) directly or through an IV. The injection will be carried out directly by a doctor or medical officer under the supervision of a doctor at the hospital. In general, the following adenosine dosages are based on their intended use:

Adem Sari


Adem Sari is useful for relieving symptoms of heartburn, such as canker sores, sore throat, and difficulty defecating. In addition, this product is also believed to help relieve flu symptoms.

In traditional medicine, internal heat is defined as a collection of complaints that occur due to consuming certain types of food too often, such as spicy foods or foods that are processed at high temperatures, such as grilled meat and fried foods.

Adem sari contains extracts of lime, pulosari, and cinnamon, which are believed to be able to relieve complaints and symptoms of heartburn. In addition, Adem Sari also contains vitamin C which is known to be good for health.

Adem Sari Products

There are two Adem Sari products available in Indonesia, namely:

  • Adem Sari
    Adem Sari containing the active ingredient extracts of lemon , cinnamon, pulosari and vitamin C . Adem Sari is packaged in the form of a sachet containing powder to be dissolved
  • Adem Sari Ching Ku
    Besides containing lime, cinnamon , and pulosari extracts , Adem Sari Ching Ku also contains liang tea extract, as well as cucumber and passion fruit juices to eliminate the bitter taste and provide freshness when drunk. Adem Sari Ching Ku is packaged in plastic bottles and cans

In addition, there is also Adem Sari Cold Water which contains minerals, such as potassium, sodium, calcium, and magnesium. This product is believed to be able to provide a cold sensation.

What is Adem Sari

The groupFree medicine
CategoryHerbal drink
BenefitRelieves symptoms of heartburn, such as canker sores , sore throat, and difficulty defecating
Consumed byAdults and children
Adem Sari for Pregnant and Breastfeeding MothersCategory N : Not yet categorized.

It is not yet known whether Adem Sari can be absorbed into breast milk or not. If you are breastfeeding, do not take this product without consulting your doctor first.

Medicine FormSolutions and solution powder sachets

Warning Before Consuming Adem Sari

Before consuming this product, you need to pay attention to the following:

  • Do not take Adem Sari if you are allergic to the ingredients in this product.
  • Be careful taking Adem Sari if you suffer from stomach ulcers .
  • Adem Sari contains the artificial sweetener aspartame. Do not take products containing aspartame if you have phenylketonuria .
  • Adem Sari contains vitamin C. Consult the consumption of vitamin C if you suffer from kidney stones , G6PD ( glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency ), or have experienced hemochromatosis .
  • Check with your doctor if your sore throat doesn't go away or canker sores don't go away, recur, or new canker sores appear.
  • Immediately see a doctor if an allergic reaction or overdose occurs after taking Adem Sari.

Dosage and Rules for Using Adem Sari

For adults, Adem Sari should be consumed as much as 1 pack, 2-3 times a day. For children, Adem Sari should be consumed as much as pack, 2-3 times a day. Do not consume 2 packs of Adem Sari at once, because it can increase the risk of stomach pain.

How Eating Adem Sari ith True

Be sure to read the information listed on the packaging label before consuming Adem Sari. If you have certain health conditions or are in doubt, consult your doctor before taking this product.

To consume Adem Sari in the form of a sachet, dissolve a packet of Adem Sari in 200 ml of cold water. Stir briefly until evenly and drink immediately.

For people with stomach ulcers, it is recommended to consume Adem Sari after eating, because Adem Sari contains acid and soda, thus preventing the recurrence of heartburn.

Adem Sari should be stored in a cool place and not exposed to direct sunlight.

Adem Sari's Interaction with Other Drugs

There is no known drug interaction that can occur if Adem Sari is used with other drugs, supplements, or herbal products. If you are in doubt, consult your doctor about using Adem Sari if you are undergoing treatment with certain supplements, herbal products, or medications.

Side Effects and Dangers of Adem Sari

If consumed according to the rules of use, Adem Sari rarely causes side effects. However, the vitamin C contained in Adem Sari if consumed in excess can cause abdominal pain, bloating , a burning sensation ( heartburn ), nausea, or headaches .

Check with your doctor if these side effects don't go away or get worse. In addition, you should immediately see a doctor if you experience an allergic reaction after consuming Adem Sari.

Adefovir


Adefovir is a drug used to treat chronic hepatitis B. This medicine can be used by adults and children 12 years of age and over.

Adefovir works by lowering the amount of hepatitis B virus in the body. This drug can not eliminate the hepatitis B virus or prevent complications from this disease. In addition, adefovir also cannot prevent the spread of the hepatitis B virus to other people.

What is Adefovir

The groupAntiviral drugs
CategoryPrescription drugs
BenefitTreating chronic hepatitis B
Used byAdults and children 12 years old
Adefovir for pregnant and lactating womenCategory C: Animal studies have shown adverse effects on the fetus, but there are no controlled studies in pregnant women. The drug should only be used if the expected benefit outweighs the risk to the fetus. It is not known whether adefovir is absorbed in breast milk or not. If you are breastfeeding, do not use this medicine without consulting your doctor first.
FormTablet

Precautions Before Taking Adefovir

Adefovir should not be used carelessly. Before taking adefovir, you need to pay attention to the following:

  • Tell your doctor if you are allergic to this medicine.
  • Tell your doctor if you are taking tenofovir. Adefovir should not be used in patients taking tenofovir.
  • Tell your doctor if you have or are currently suffering from kidney disease , high blood pressure, other liver disease , or diabetes .
  • Tell your doctor if you are on hemodialysis .
  • Tell your doctor if you have HIV/AIDS and have not had treatment before.
  • Adefovir can cause lactic acidosis. Immediately see a doctor if you feel symptoms such as muscle pain, difficulty breathing, and abdominal pain.
  • Tell your doctor if you are pregnant, breastfeeding, or planning a pregnancy.
  • Tell your doctor if you are taking certain medications, supplements, or herbal products.
  • See your doctor right away if you have an allergic reaction or overdose after taking adefovir.

Adefovir Dosage and Use Rules

Adefovir should only be used as prescribed by a doctor . The dose of adefovir for adults and children aged 12 years and over is 10 mg once a day. Do not stop treatment without a doctor's advice.

Adapalene


Adapalene is a remedy for acne. This drug is useful for reducing the number and severity of acne, as well as speeding up the healing process of acne.

Adapalene belongs to the retinoid class of drugs. This drug works by triggering the process of skin growth and turnover, reduces blackheads , and relieves inflammation of the skin.

What Is Adapalene

The groupPrescription drugs
CategoryRetinoid
BenefitTreating acne
Used byAdults and children 12 years old
Adapalene for pregnant and lactating womenCategory C: Animal studies have shown adverse effects on the fetus, but there are no controlled studies in pregnant women.

Drugs should only be used if the expected benefit outweighs the risk to the fetus.

It is not known whether adapalene is absorbed into breast milk or not. If you are breastfeeding, do not use this medicine before consulting your doctor.

FormGel and cream

Precautions Before Using Adapalene

Adapalene should only be used according to a doctor's prescription. Consider the following before using adapalene:

  • Do not use adapalene if you are allergic to this drug. Tell your doctor if you are allergic to this medicine, retinoids, or vitamin A.
  • Tell your doctor if you have a skin disorder, such as eczema or seborrheic dermatitis.
  • Tell your doctor if you are taking certain medications, supplements, or herbal products.
  • Tell your doctor if you are pregnant, breastfeeding, or planning a pregnancy.
  • Do not be exposed to direct sunlight for too long and always use sunscreen if you are active outside while undergoing treatment with adapalene, because this drug can cause the skin to sunburn more easily .
  • Avoid using adapalene on areas of skin that have been recently shaved, waxed or removed by electrolysis.
  • Do not use adapalene on skin that is sore, irritated, peeling, burned or cracked.
  • See a doctor immediately if you have  an allergic reaction to the drug  or an overdose after using adapalene.

Adapalene Dosage and Directions for Use

The dose of adapalene will be adjusted according to the severity of the condition and the patient's response to the drug.

Adalimumab


Adalimumab is a medication to relieve symptoms of arthritis, colitis, or inflammation of the skin. This drug is only available in injectable form and can only be given by a doctor or medical officer under the supervision of a doctor.

Adalimumab works by blocking the action of substances that cause inflammation in the body. This will reduce signs of inflammation, such as pain, fever, and swelling.

Adalimumab can be used alone or in combination with other drugs to treat inflammation in the following autoimmune diseases:

  • Rheumatoid arthritis , which is inflammation of the joints in adults that causes pain, swelling, and stiffness.
  • Juvenile idiopathic arthritis , which is inflammation of the joints in children.
  • Ankylosing spondylitis , which is chronic inflammation of the spine.
  • Psoriatic arthritis , which is an inflammation of the joints that attacks psoriasis sufferers.
  • Plaque psoriasis, which is inflammation of the skin due to psoriasis.
  • Ulcerative colitis, which is inflammation of the large intestine and rectum.
  • Crohn's disease, which is inflammation of the walls of the digestive system, especially the small intestine and large intestine.

Adalimumab is also sometimes used to treat hidradenitis suppurativa and uveitis in children.

Topical Acyclovir


Topical Acyclovir are foreign drugs to cope with blisters on the skin caused by the herpes simplex virus. This medicine is used by applying it to the infected area of ​​the skin.

Topical acyclovir is used to relieve pain and accelerate the healing of blisters on the skin around the lips or genitals, as well as herpes in the eyes. Topical acyclovir also works to prevent the spread of the herpes virus in the patient's body.

In Indonesia, topical acyclovir (acyclovir) is available in the form of 5% ointment and cream for the skin, and 3% eye ointment. Dosage and the rules of use depend on the patient's condition.

Please note, topical acyclovir can not cure herpes, but only relieve symptoms and inhibit the development of infection. In addition, this drug also cannot prevent disease recurrence or transmission of infection to other people.

What Is Topical Acyclovir?

The groupAntiviral drugs
CategoryPrescription drugs
BenefitOvercoming the symptoms of herpes simplex on the skin
Used byMature
Pregnancy and breastfeeding categoryCategory B: Animal studies have not shown a risk to the fetus, but there are no controlled studies in pregnant women. Topical acyclovir is not known to be absorbed into breast milk or not. If you are breastfeeding, do not use this medicine without telling your doctor.
Drug formCream , skin ointment, eye ointment.

Precautions Before Using Topical Acyclovir

  • Do not use acyclovir ointment for the skin inside the eyes, nose, and mouth. If accidentally hit the part, rinse immediately with water. On herpes blisters that appear in the mouth, apply only around the outer lips.
  • Before using acyclovir ointment, tell your doctor about your medical history, especially diseases that affect the immune system, such as HIV/AIDS .
  • Talk to your doctor before using acyclovir ointment, especially if you are allergic to acyclovir or any of the other ingredients in this medicine.
  • Acyclovir ointment does not prevent the transmission of the genital herpes virus. Avoid sexual intercourse until completely healed.
  • Consult a doctor if after one week of using acyclovir ointment, symptoms still do not improve.
  • Acyclovir ointment should not be used in children under 12 years of age.

Dosage and Instructions for Use of Topical Acyclovir

The following are the doses of topical acyclovir (aciclovir) based on the form of the drug:

Form: eye ointment

Condition: herpes eye .

Dosis : apply 5 times a day every 4 hours, until 3 days after recovery.

Form: ointment or skin cream

Condition: genital herpes and lips.

Dosis : Apply 5-6 times a day, for 5 to 10 days.

Topical acyclovir can also be used to treat blisters caused by shingles ( shingles ). However, the main treatment for shingles is with acyclovir tablets.

Acyclovir Tablet


Acyclovir is used to treat herpes virus infections, including chickenpox, shingles, or genital herpes. In addition, this drug can also be used to prevent recurrence of herpes virus infection in someone with a weak immune system.

Acyclovir is an antiviral drug that works by inhibiting the formation of the genetic material of the virus, thereby interfering with its replication. That way, the immune system can work more optimally to deal with viral infections.

Keep in mind that this medicine cannot cure herpes virus infection. Acyclovir tablets are available in 200 mg and 400 mg tablets.

Merek dagang acyclovir tablet: Acifar, Acyclovir, Clinovir, Zoter, Zovirax

What is Acyclovir Tablet

The groupPrescription drugs
CategoryAntiviral drugs
BenefitTreating herpes virus infections, such as chickenpox, shingles, or herpes simplex
Consumed byAdults and children
Acyclovir for pregnant and lactating womenCategory B:  Animal studies have not demonstrated a risk to the fetus, but there are no controlled studies in pregnant women.

Acyclovir can be absorbed into breast milk. If you are breastfeeding, do not use this medicine without telling your doctor.

Drug formTablet

Precautions Before Taking Acyclovir Tablet

Before taking this drug, you need to pay attention to the following:

  • Do not take acyclovir tablets if you are allergic to this medicine or to valaciclovir. Tell your doctor about any allergies you have.
  • Tell your doctor if you have  kidney disease , or a condition that weakens your immune system, such as having HIV/AIDS or having had an organ transplant.
  • Tell your doctor if you plan to get vaccinated while you are taking acyclovir tablets.
  • If you have genital herpes, it is advisable not to have sex. Acyclovir tablets cannot prevent transmission.
  • Tell your doctor if you are pregnant, breastfeeding, or planning a pregnancy.
  • Tell your doctor if you are taking any other supplements, herbal products, or medicines.
  • See your doctor right away if you have an allergic reaction , serious side effects, or overdose after taking acyclovir tablets.

Dosage and Instructions for Use Acy lovir Tablet

Actifed


Activated is a  drug that is useful for relieving symptoms due to colds, flu, or allergic rhinitis. This drug is available in syrup form with three variants, namely Activated Yellow, Activated Green, and Activated Red.

Activated contains two main ingredients, namely pseudoephedrine HCl and triprolidine. Pseudoephedrine HCl is a decongestant that works by constricting blood vessels in the nasal cavity so that it can relieve symptoms of nasal congestion.

While triprolidine is an antihistamine that works by inhibiting the work of histamine, a chemical that will cause an allergic reaction when a person is exposed to an allergy-triggering substance (allergen).

Active Products

There are three Activated products available in Indonesia, namely:

1. Actifed

Activated which is packaged in a yellow bottle is useful for relieving colds and sneezing. Each 5 ml of Activated contains the active ingredients pseudoephedrine HCl and triprolidine.

2. Actifed Plus Expectorant

Activated Plus Expectorant which is packaged in a green bottle is useful for relieving colds and coughs with phlegm. Each 5 ml of Active Plus Expectorant contains the active ingredients pseudoephedrine HCl, triprolidine , and guaifenesin.

3. Actifed Plus Cough Suppressant

Actemra


Actemra is a drug used to treat  moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis. In addition, Actemra has obtained an emergency use permit for use in COVID-19 sufferers with severe symptoms.

Actemra contains tocilizumab. Tocilizumab works by inhibiting the production of interleukin 6 or IL-6, so that excessive immune system responses can be inhibited.

This way of working is expected to be able to handle COVID-19 sufferers with severe symptoms who experience cytokine storms. This medicine will be given directly by a doctor or medical officer at the hospital.

What is Actemra

Active IngredientsTocilizumab
The groupPrescription drugs
CategoryAntiinterleukin type 6 immunosuppressant (IL-6)
BenefitTreating rheumatoid arthritis and treating COVID-19 with severe symptoms
Used byAdults and children ages
Actemra for pregnant and lactating womenCategory C:  Animal studies have shown adverse effects on the fetus, but there are no controlled studies in pregnant women.

Drugs should only be used if the expected benefit outweighs the risk to the fetus.

It is not known whether Actemra is absorbed into breast milk or not. Breastfeeding mothers are advised to consult a doctor before using this medicine.

Drug formInject

Precautions Before Using Actemra

Aclidinium


Aclidinium is a drug to relieve symptoms of shortness of breath, coughing or wheezing, battery at chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Please note that this drug cannot cure COPD. Aclidinium should not be used carelessly and must be in accordance with a doctor's prescription.  

Aclidinium works by relaxing the muscles in the respiratory tract. That way, the respiratory tract can widen and air flow to and from the lungs can be smoother.

What Is Aclidinium

The groupPrescription drugs
CategoryBronchodilators type of anticholinergic
BenefitRelieve COPD symptoms
Used byMature
Aclidinium for pregnant and lactating womenCategory C: Animal studies have shown adverse effects on the fetus, but there are no controlled studies in pregnant women. Drugs should only be used if the expected benefit outweighs the risk to the fetus.

It is not known whether Aclidinium is absorbed into breast milk or not. If you are breastfeeding, do not use this medicine without consulting your doctor first.

Drug formInhaler

Precautions Before Using Aclidinium

Aclidinium should only be used according to a doctor's prescription. Here are some things you need to keep in mind before using aclidinium:

  • Do not use aclidinium if you are allergic to this medicine, atropine, or milk protein. Tell your doctor about any allergies you have.
  • Tell your doctor if you have or have had an enlarged prostate gland , liver disease, glaucoma , or bladder disease.
  • Tell your doctor if you are taking certain medications, herbal products, or supplements.
  • Tell your doctor if you are pregnant, breastfeeding, or planning a pregnancy.
  • See your doctor right away if you have an allergic drug reaction, serious side effect, or overdose after using aclidinium.

Dosage and Rules of Use Aclidinium

Acitretin


Acitretin is a medication to treat severe psoriasis that cannot be treated with other medications It is also used to treat lichen planus , congenital ichthyosis, and Darier's disease.

Acitretin belongs to the class of retinoids . This drug works by slowing the growth of new skin cells and reducing the symptoms of inflammation, including the redness and inflammation of psoriasis.

What Is Acitretin

The groupPrescription drugs
CategoryRetinoid
BenefitRelieves symptoms of severe psoriasis, lichen planus , congenital ichthyosis, and Darier's disease
Consumed byMature
Acitretin for pregnant and lactating womenCategory X: Studies in experimental animals and humans have demonstrated fetal abnormalities or a risk to the fetus. Drugs in this category should not be used by women who are or may become pregnant.

Acitretin can be absorbed into breast milk. If you are breastfeeding, do not use this medicine without consulting your doctor first.

Drug formCapsule

Precautions Before Taking Acitretin

Acitretin should only be used as prescribed by a doctor. There are several things that must be considered before taking this drug, including:

  • Do not take acitretin if you are allergic to this medicine or to other retinoid medicines, such as tretinoin or isotretinoin . Tell your doctor about any allergies you have.
  • Acitretin should not be used by women who are pregnant or breastfeeding. Tell your doctor if you are pregnant, breastfeeding, or planning a pregnancy.
  • During treatment with acitretin up to 3 years afterward, always use effective contraceptives to prevent pregnancy.
  • Tell your doctor if you have liver failure , kidney failure , or hyperlipidemia . Acitretin should not be used in patients suffering from these conditions.
  • Do not donate blood during treatment with acitretin for up to 3 years afterward.
  • Tell your doctor if you have ever had heart disease , diabetes, liver disease , mental disorders, such as depression , or are currently undergoing phototherapy procedures.
  • Do not drive a vehicle or engage in activities that require alertness after taking acitretin, as this drug can cause vision problems.
  • Tell your doctor if you are taking certain medications, supplements, or herbal products.
  • Limit activities that expose you to direct sunlight during treatment with acitretin, as this medication can make your skin more sensitive to sunlight.
  • See your doctor immediately if you have an allergic drug reaction, serious side effect, or overdose after taking acitretin.

Dosage and Instructions for Use of Acitretin

The following are general doses of acitretin for adults based on the condition to be treated:

  • Conditions: Severe psoriasis , severe lichen planus , congenital ichthyosis
    Initial dose 25 mg or 30 mg, per day, for 2–4 weeks, adjusted according to patient response to treatment. Maintenance dose 25–50 mg daily for 6–8 weeks. The maximum dose is 75 mg per day.
  • Condition: Darier's disease Initial
    dose 10 mg, daily, for 2–4 weeks. If needed, the dose may be increased to 25–50 mg per day according to the patient's response to treatment.

How to Take Acitretin Correctly

Acetylcysteine


Acetylcysteine ​​or acetylcysteine ​​is a drug  used to thin phlegm in several conditions, such as asthma, cystic fibrosis , or COPD. In addition, this drug is also used to treat paracetamol poisoning.

Acetylcysteine ​​has several preparations, namely tablets, capsules, syrups, injections, or inhalation solutions. As a cough medicine, acetylcysteine ​​works as a mucolytic or phlegm thinner, so that phlegm can be expelled more easily through coughing. It should be noted, this drug is not suitable for dry cough.

What is Acetylcysteine

The groupPrescription drugs
CategoryMucolytic drugs (sputum thinners)
BenefitDilute phlegm and treat paracetamol poisoning
Used byAdults and children
Acetylcysteine ​​for pregnant and lactating womenCategory B: Animal studies have not demonstrated a risk to the fetus, but there are no controlled studies in pregnant women.

Acetylcysteine ​​is not known whether it can be absorbed into breast milk or not. If you are breastfeeding, do not use this medicine without consulting your doctor first.

Drug formEffervescent tablets, capsules, dry syrup, granules, injections, and inhalation solutions (inhaled)

Precautions Before Using Acetylcysteine

Acetylcysteine ​​must be used as prescribed by a doctor. The following are things you need to pay attention to before using acetylcysteine:

  • Do not use acetylcysteine ​​if you are allergic to this drug. Always tell your doctor about any allergies you have.

Acetazolamide


Acetazolamide is a drug used in the treatment of glaucoma, epilepsy, or altitude sickness . In addition, this drug can also be used to treat fluid buildup (edema) in patients with heart failure.

Acetazolamide works by inhibiting the action of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase . In the treatment of glaucoma, the inhibition of the action of these enzymes causes a decrease in fluid in the eye (aqueous humor), so that the pressure in the eyeball (intraocular pressure) can decrease.

What is Acetazolamide

The groupPrescription drugs
Categorydiuretic
BenefitTreating glaucoma, edema, epilepsy , and altitude sickness
Consumed byAdults and children over 12 years old
Acetazolamide for pregnant and lactating womenCategory C:  Animal studies have shown adverse effects on the fetus, but there are no controlled studies in pregnant women. Drugs should only be used if the expected benefit outweighs the risk to the fetus.

Acetazolamide can be absorbed into breast milk. If you are breastfeeding, do not use this medicine without consulting your doctor first.

Drug formTablet

Precautions Before Taking Acetazolamide

Acetazolamide should only be used according to a doctor's prescription. Note the following points before taking acetazolamide:

  • Do not use acetazolamide if you are allergic to this drug. Tell your doctor about any allergies you have, including allergies to sulfa drugs .
  • Tell your doctor if you have kidney disease, electrolyte disturbances adrenal gland disorders , or liver disease, including cirrhosis . Acetazolamide should not be used by patients suffering from these conditions.
  • Tell your doctor if you have or are suffering from, diabetes , difficulty urinating, dehydration, gout (gout), hyperthyroidism , respiratory distress, or closed-angle glaucoma.
  • Do not drive a vehicle or do activities that require alertness after taking acetazolamide, as this medicine may cause dizziness or drowsiness.
  • Avoid exposure to direct sunlight for a long time while undergoing treatment with acetazolamide, because this drug can make the skin more prone to sunburn ( sunburn ).
  • Tell your doctor if you are pregnant, breastfeeding, or planning a pregnancy.
  • See your doctor immediately if you experience a drug allergic reaction, overdose, or serious side effect after taking acetazolamide
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