What is Acetylcysteine
|The group||Prescription drugs|
|Category||Mucolytic drugs (sputum thinners)|
|Benefit||Dilute phlegm and treat paracetamol poisoning|
|Used by||Adults and children|
|Acetylcysteine for pregnant and lactating women||Category B: Animal studies have not demonstrated a risk to the fetus, but there are no controlled studies in pregnant women.|
Acetylcysteine is not known whether it can be absorbed into breast milk or not. If you are breastfeeding, do not use this medicine without consulting your doctor first.
|Drug form||Effervescent tablets, capsules, dry syrup, granules, injections, and inhalation solutions (inhaled)|
Precautions Before Using Acetylcysteine
Acetylcysteine must be used as prescribed by a doctor. The following are things you need to pay attention to before using acetylcysteine:
- Do not use acetylcysteine if you are allergic to this drug. Always tell your doctor about any allergies you have.
- Tell your doctor if you have or have had kidney disease , asthma, heartburn , stomach ulcers, esophageal varices , high blood pressure (hypertension), heart failure , or are on a low-salt diet .
- Tell your doctor if you are taking certain medications, supplements, or herbal products.
- Tell your doctor if you are pregnant, breastfeeding, or planning a pregnancy.
- Call your doctor right away if you have an allergic reaction to the drug, serious side effects, or an overdose after using acetylcysteine.
Acetylcysteine Dosage and Directions for Use
The doctor will give the dose and determine the length of treatment according to the patient's condition and age. The following is a breakdown of acetylcysteine doses based on the form of the drug:
The form of effervescent tablets , capsules, dry syrup, and granules
Condition: Dilute phlegm
- Adult: 200 mg 3 times daily, or 600 mg (for effervescent preparations ) once daily. The maximum dose is 600 mg per day.
- Children 2–6 years of age: 100 mg, 2–4 times daily.
- Children >6 years of age: 200 mg, 2-3 times daily.
- Adults: To treat paracetamol poisoning, the form of the drug used is effervescent tablets with an initial dose of 140 mg/kgBW, followed by 17 times a maintenance dose of 70 mg/kgBW, given every 4 hours.
Inhalation solution form
Condition : Dilute phlegm
- Adult: As a 10% solution, 6–10 ml, 3-4 times daily. The dose may be increased to 2–20 ml, every 2–6 hours as needed. As a 20% solution, 3-5 ml, 3-4 times daily. The dose may be increased to 1–10 ml, every 2–6 hours or as needed.
In addition to oral dosage forms and inhalation solutions, acetylcysteine also has injectable dosage forms. Especially for injectable dosage forms, the drug will be given directly by a doctor or medical officer under the supervision of a doctor.
How to Use Acetylcysteine Correctly
Follow the doctor's recommendations and the rules for using the drug listed on the packaging label. Do not increase or decrease the dose without consulting your doctor first.
Acetylcysteine should be taken with food or after meals. Take acetylcysteine capsules with water. Do not chew or crush the tablet as this may increase the risk of side effects.
For acetylcysteine in the form of granules, dissolve 1 sachet of acetylcysteine granules into plain water according to the dosage recommended on the label. Stir the solution until evenly distributed before drinking.
For acetylcysteine effevescent tablets, dissolve them in a glass of water before consuming. This medicine should be taken no more than 2 hours after it has been dissolved.
For acetylcysteine dry syrup, shake the bottle before consuming the syrup. Dissolve the contents of the bottle of dry syrup using plain water according to the instructions on the label, then stir until evenly distributed.
Try to take acetylcysteine at the same time every day, for maximum treatment effect. If you forget to take acetylcysteine, take it immediately if the next schedule is not too close. If it is close, ignore it and do not double the dose.
Acetylcysteine injection should only be given by a doctor or medical personnel under the supervision of a doctor. The doctor will inject acetylcysteine according to the patient's condition.
Acetylcysteine inhalation solution is used by inhalation through the mouth using a nebulizer.
To treat paracetamol poisoning, acetylcysteine must be administered in a hospital and under the supervision of a doctor. This is because patients with paracetamol poisoning need to receive close monitoring and check blood levels of paracetamol, liver function tests, and regular complete blood tests.
Store acetylcysteine at room temperature and in a closed container to avoid direct sunlight. Keep medicine out of reach of children.
Acetylcysteine Interactions with Other Drugs
There are several drug interaction effects that can occur when acetylcysteine is used with other medicines, including:
- Increased risk of phlegm buildup if used with antitussive drugs, such as codeine
- Decreased effectiveness of the drug acetylcysteine when used together with activated charcoal
- Enhanced effect of nitroglycerin in dilating blood vessels (vasodilator)
- Decreased effectiveness of antibiotics
Acetylcysteine Side Effects and Dangers
Side effects that may arise after using acetylcysteine are:
- Stomach ache
- Have a cold
Check with your doctor if the side effects above do not subside. Immediately see a doctor if an allergic reaction occurs to a drug or a more serious side effect occurs, such as:
- Coughing up blood or vomiting blood
- Chest pain or difficulty breathing
- Upper abdominal pain that gets worse
- Vomiting that is persistent and getting worse
- Loss of appetite
- Dark urine