All About Chemistry

Acetazolamide


Acetazolamide is a drug used in the treatment of glaucoma, epilepsy, or altitude sickness . In addition, this drug can also be used to treat fluid buildup (edema) in patients with heart failure.

Acetazolamide works by inhibiting the action of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase . In the treatment of glaucoma, the inhibition of the action of these enzymes causes a decrease in fluid in the eye (aqueous humor), so that the pressure in the eyeball (intraocular pressure) can decrease.

What is Acetazolamide

The groupPrescription drugs
Categorydiuretic
BenefitTreating glaucoma, edema, epilepsy , and altitude sickness
Consumed byAdults and children over 12 years old
Acetazolamide for pregnant and lactating womenCategory C:  Animal studies have shown adverse effects on the fetus, but there are no controlled studies in pregnant women. Drugs should only be used if the expected benefit outweighs the risk to the fetus.

Acetazolamide can be absorbed into breast milk. If you are breastfeeding, do not use this medicine without consulting your doctor first.

Drug formTablet

Precautions Before Taking Acetazolamide

Acetazolamide should only be used according to a doctor's prescription. Note the following points before taking acetazolamide:

  • Do not use acetazolamide if you are allergic to this drug. Tell your doctor about any allergies you have, including allergies to sulfa drugs .
  • Tell your doctor if you have kidney disease, electrolyte disturbances adrenal gland disorders , or liver disease, including cirrhosis . Acetazolamide should not be used by patients suffering from these conditions.
  • Tell your doctor if you have or are suffering from, diabetes , difficulty urinating, dehydration, gout (gout), hyperthyroidism , respiratory distress, or closed-angle glaucoma.
  • Do not drive a vehicle or do activities that require alertness after taking acetazolamide, as this medicine may cause dizziness or drowsiness.
  • Avoid exposure to direct sunlight for a long time while undergoing treatment with acetazolamide, because this drug can make the skin more prone to sunburn ( sunburn ).
  • Tell your doctor if you are pregnant, breastfeeding, or planning a pregnancy.
  • See your doctor immediately if you experience a drug allergic reaction, overdose, or serious side effect after taking acetazolamide

Acetazolamide Dosage and Rules

The following are general doses of Acetazolamide based on the condition to be treated and the age of the patient:

Condition: Glaucoma

  • Adults: 250-1,000 mg per day, divided into several consumption schedules.

Condition: Epilepsy

  • Adults: 250–1,000 mg per day, divided into several consumption schedules.
  • Children aged 12 years: 8–30 mg/kgBW per day, divided into several consumption schedules. The maximum dose is 750 mg per day.

Condition: Altitude sickness

  • Adults: 500-1,000 mg per day, divided into several consumption schedules.

Condition: Edema

  • Adult: 230-375 mg, once daily.

How to Take Acetazolamide Correctly

Always follow the doctor's instructions and read the information on the medicine package before taking acetazolamide.

Acetazolamide should be taken after meals. Swallow the acetazolamide tablet whole with the help of water. Do not chew, split, or crush acetazolamide tablets. Drink plenty of water while using this medicine.

If you are taking this medicine for glaucoma, epilepsy, or edema, take this medicine regularly. Try to take this medicine at the same time every day.

Perform control according to the schedule given by the doctor while undergoing treatment with acetazolamide. Your doctor may suggest periodic laboratory tests to monitor your condition.

If you forget to take acetazolamide, take this medicine immediately if the interval between the next consumption schedule is not too close. If it is close, ignore it and do not double the dose.

If you are taking acetazolamide to treat altitude sickness, it is recommended to take this medication 1-2 days before climbing. Continue taking medication during the hike. If needed, the consumption of this drug can be continued for 2 days while in the highlands.

Store acetazolamide in a closed container, at room temperature, in a dry place, and away from sunlight. Keep medicine out of reach of children.

Acetazolamide Interactions with Other Drugs

The following are interactions that may occur if you use acetazolemide with other drugs:

  • Increased risk of central nervous system toxicity and acidosis when used with high-dose aspirin
  • Increases the level of phenytoin or carbamazepine in the blood
  • Increases the effect of folic acid antagonists, medications to lower blood sugar levels, or oral anticoagulants
  • Increase lithium discharge
  • Reduces primidone levels in the blood
  • Enhances effect of amphetamine or quinidine
  • Inhibits the effects of methenamine
  • Increases the risk of developing kidney stones if taken with sodium bicarbonate
  • Increases the level of ciclosporin in the blood
  • Increases the level of ciclosporin in the blood

Acetazolamide Side Effects and Dangers

The following are some of the side effects that can occur after taking acetazolamide:

  • Diarrhea
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Loss of appetite
  • Weight loss
  • Increased frequency of urination
  • Numbness or tingling in the hands or feet
  • Dizziness or sleepiness

Check with your doctor if these side effects don't get better or get worse. See your doctor right away if you have an allergic drug reaction or any serious side effects of any of the following:

  • Unusual tiredness or weakness
  • Shortness of breath or shortness of breath
  • Bloody urine
  • Difficult to urinate
  • Depression
  • Lower back pain
  • Pain when urinating
  • Seizure
  • Urine volume decreases suddenly
  • Jaundice
Labels: Drug

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