Central Chemistry

How to Search for International Journals on Google Scholar

The author has shared in the previous article about how to create a scientific journal, so now the author will discuss how to search for int...

Monday, December 27, 2021

Chapter 1 — Matter (Its Properties and Measurement)

Chapter 1 — Matter (Its Properties and Measurement)

From the clinic that treats chemical dependency to a theatrical perfor- mance with good chemistry to the food label stating “no chemicals added,” chemistry and chemicals seem an integral part of life, even if everyday references to them are often misleading. A label implying the absence of chemicals in a food makes no sense. All foods consist entirely of chemicals, even if organically grown. In fact, all material objects— whether living or inanimate—are made up only of chemicals, and we should begin our study with that thought clearly in mind. By manipulating materials in their environment, people have always practiced chemistry. Among the earliest applications were glazing pottery, smelting ores to produce metals, tanning hides, dyeing fabrics, and making cheese, wine, beer, and soap. With modern knowledge, though, chemists can decompose matter into its smallest components (atoms) and reassemble those components into materials that do not exist naturally and that often exhibit unusual properties. Thus, motor fuels and thousands of chemicals used in the manufacture of plastics, synthetic fabrics, pharmaceuticals, and pesticides can all be made from petroleum. Modern chemical knowledge is also needed to understand the processes that sustain life and to understand and control processes that are detrimental to the environment, such as the formation of smog and the destruction of stratospheric ozone. Because it relates to so many areas of human endeavor, chemistry is sometimes called the central science.

Early chemical knowledge consisted of the “how to” of chemistry, discovered through trial and error. Modern chemical knowledge answers the “why” as well as the “how to” of chemical change. It is grounded in principles and theory, and mastering the principles of chemistry requires a systematic approach to the subject. Scientific progress depends on the way scientists do their work—asking the right questions, designing the right experiments to supply the answers, and formulating plausible explanations of their findings. We begin with a closer look into the scientific method.

1-1 The Scientific Method

—The scientific method is a set of procedures used to develop explanations of natural phenomena and possibly to predict additional phenomena. The four basic stages of the scientific method are (1) gathering data through observations and experiments; (2) reducing the data to simple verbal or mathematical expressions known as natural laws; (3) offering a plausible explanation of the data through a hypothesis; (4) testing the hypothesis through predictions and further experimentation, leading ultimately to a conceptual model called a theory that explains the hypothesis, often together with other related hypotheses.

1-2 Properties of Matter

—Matter is defined as anything that occupies space, possesses mass, and displays inertia. Composition refers to the component parts of a sample of matter and their relative proportions. Properties are the qualities or attributes that distinguish one sample of matter from another. Properties of matter can be grouped into two broad categories: physical and chemical. Matter can undergo two types of changes: chemical changes or reactions are changes in composition; physical changes are changes in state or physical form and do not affect composition.

1-3 Classification of Matter

—The basic building blocks of matter are called atoms. Matter that is composed of a collection of a single type of atom is known as an element. A sample of matter composed of two or more elements is known as a compound. A molecule is the smallest entity of a compound having the same proportions of the constituent atoms as does the compound as a whole. Collectively, elements and compounds compose the types of matter called substances. Mixtures of substances can be classified as homogeneous or heterogeneous (Fig. 1-4). The three states of matter are solid, liquid, and gas.

Tuesday, November 9, 2021

This is the Easy Way to Write an International Journal

This is the Easy Way to Write an International Journal

International journals have a standard writing structure. Usually international journals are written in order from title to reference. However, how to write an easy international journal manuscript does not have to be sequential.

Based on experience, writing international journals sequentially (according to their structure) is not very effective. So we need a strategy on how to make the order of writing this international journal manuscript.

In general, an international journal sequentially consists of:

  • Title
  • Authors
  • Affiliation
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Materials and Method
  • Result
  • Discussion
  • Conclusion
  • Acknowledgments
  • References

The obstacle when writing international journal manuscripts in order according to their structure is the limitation in the content of the journal. The author becomes attached to the title that has been made in advance. As a result, the opportunity to get a source of ideas in solving problems becomes small.

In addition, the process of making journal manuscripts takes longer because they have to synchronize back and forth between the components of the journal's structure.

Then, what is the order of writing an effective international journal manuscript? The following is a personal experience when I write an international journal manuscript.

To make it easy and effective in preparing international journal manuscripts, the following is the order of writing.

1. Materials and Method

This section contains an explanation of your readiness to conduct research. In addition to explaining all research materials and tools, you also need to explain clearly how to conduct research.

Why does this Materials and Method section need to be created first?

An international journal is a scientific article that results from research. Of course this part is the easiest to make.

2. Result

As is the case with Materials and Methods, you certainly already have the results or research results when you are going to make a journal manuscript. It's just that you need to take only part of the research results. It doesn't need to be all, so that the discussion can be in more detail.

This section only contains research data without any analysis. You can write the analysis in the Discussion section. But there are also those who combine Result and Discussion. If they are combined, it means that when displaying the results of the research, it is immediately followed by the analysis.

3. Discussion

This section contains the analysis of research results that can prove the truth of the hypothesis or research objectives. In essence, the Discussion section contains arguments that support the truth of the research results.

4. Conclusion

In addition to answering the hypothesis, this section contains answers to your research objectives. Here you can also state the advantages and disadvantages of the method you used to solve the problem.

5. Introduction

After finishing writing the contents of the journal, now is the time for you to make an Introduction. This introduction contains an introduction for the reader before reading the entire contents of the journal.

Usually the Introduction has the following structure:

  • The significance of your research
  • The results of previous people's research are related to your research
  • Bring up problems that have not been investigated by others
  • Taking the right method in solving these problems

6. References

Some things to consider when making references are:

  • Write down all the references you use. Reference sources that you do not cite would be better if you do not need to cite. Use citation generator software to eliminate errors.
  • Use up-to-date reference sources. At least less than 10 years ago.
  • Use a reference writing style according to the journal. Most journals have different writing styles.

7. Abstract

Abstract is a summary of the contents of a journal that is more informative than the title. In order for readers to understand the entire contents of the journal, abstracts are usually made with the following structure:

How to Choose Scopus Journals to Pass Your Articles

How to Choose Scopus Journals to Pass Your Articles

How to choose a Scopus journal will greatly affect whether or not your manuscript passes. If all this time you've been struggling through the review process which is quite tiring but also not successful, don't despair. This does not mean that your manuscript is not of high quality and has no potential to be published on Scopus. It could be because of the way to choose the Scopus journal that was not shot correctly.

Scopus indexed international journals with qualification 4 (Q4) are not always easy to penetrate. However, not a few Scopus Q4 journals have a great chance of receiving your manuscript.

Indeed, for beginners, to be precise, Scopus Q4, but what kind of Q4 is it? This is what we will discuss in this article.

Tips for Choosing a Scopus Journal

The characteristics of Scopus journals that have a high chance of being penetrated are:

1. Scopus Qualification Journal Q4

Scopus divides the ranking of its journals according to the highest to the lowest rank into 4 sections, namely Q1, Q2, Q3 and Q4. It is very appropriate if you are a beginner who has never submitted to a Scopus journal, the target is Scopus Q4.

However, if you feel capable, please choose a higher qualification, for example Q2 or Q3. It is said to be capable if the manuscript you create comes from quality research results with good novelty. In addition, it is also supported by clear research methods and the use of good gamma.

Saturday, October 23, 2021

The Group 1 elements

The Group 1 elements

Sodium and potassium are abundant in nature and can be found as salts such as chlorides. Lithium is a rare element that is found primarily in the mineral spodumene LiAlSi2O6. Rubidium and caesium are even rarer, but they can be found in reasonable amounts in minerals like zeolite pollucite (Cs2Al2Si4O12.nH2O). Electrolysis of molten metal chloride extracts sodium and lithium metals. Rubidium and caesium are obtained by reacting metal chloride with calcium or barium and potassium is obtained by reacting KCl with sodium metal.

LabCollector LIMS

LabCollector LIMS

What exactly is the LabCollector LIMS?

LabCollector is a lab and notebook software package that includes everything you need. Built on the foundation of independent modules that can communicate with one another, LabCollector will manage a wide range of useful laboratory data. It's one-of-a-kind, affordable, expandable, and includes a customizable collaborative interface that can be tailored to your needs. Aside from that, it includes an Electronic Lab Notebook (ELN) as well as numerous other add-ons (workflows, sensors monitoring, service management...). LabCollector is available as a cloud-based service or as an on-premises solution.

How to Search for International Journals on Google Scholar

How to Search for International Journals on Google Scholar

The author has shared in the previous article about how to create a scientific journal, so now the author will discuss how to search for international journals on Google Scholar or other websites.

For those who compose a final project, scientific paper, or other research, valid and reliable references are needed to strengthen the argument in the research.

References can come from theses, books, dissertations, journals, etc.

Journals are often used to find references because of their concise flow and more diverse and up-to-date topics.

But unfortunately, sometimes there are some topics that have not been covered by national journals.

If the topic you need cannot be found in national journals, international journals can be the solution.

Then what sites can we use to search for international journals?

Here are 8 recommendations for international journal sites that you can use as a reference source.

How to Find Free International Journals

Nowadays, finding journals is not as difficult as it used to be. With the advancement of internet technology, there are now many online journals scattered in cyberspace.

Starting from national journals to international journals. This international journal is a very powerful reference in conducting scientific research or thesis.

But there are still many people who are confused about how to find international journals. Here is the web to find international journals.

1. How to Search for International Journals on Google Scholar

Before proceeding to how to search for international journals on Google Scholar, there are features in Google Scholar that you need, such as the following:

  • Providing literature from various fields of science
  • making it easier for users to get references
  • Provide full text documents or articles
  • Allows to follow the latest developments or research issues
  • Can be used to check cited works View full-text documents or articles

as the author explains Features on Google Scholar you can search for international journals through this platform.

Here's how to find international journals through Google Scholar:Google

1. Go to the Scholar website at Scholar.google.com

2. On the home screen a search screen will appear as in Google search

3. Type the keyword you want to search for . For example, you want to search for the journal "Covid-19 Treatment in Children". Then type this word as a keyword in the previous search

4. After that, Google Scholar will display several documents related to the topic.

5. Open the search results and make sure the reference you will use is in accordance with the requirements of the international journal mentioned above, so that the reference can be said to be reliable in providing information

6. Directly click on the search result or right-click the PDF file, then select “Download”.

On the left side of the same page, you can narrow the search to what you want to find.

From the moment the journal is published, the search results are also sorted.

How to Find Recent Journals on Google Scholar

Actually there are many things you can do to get the latest and relevant articles.

  • If you want to search for more recent articles, select the option on the left of the Since Years screen.
  • To view and sort the new sheet by relevance, click Sort by Date.
  • Click the envelope icon to get regular new results to email.


ScienceDirect provides articles and books in addition to international journals. This includes both paid and free.

Just look for it in the Open Access section. Just enter the keywords you're looking for, and the journal title and summary will appear in the column.

Link: http://sciencedirect.com

3. Research Gate

This site is a gathering place for an online community of researchers.

Researchers can download journals or order journals for free or for free.

To register using the institution or campus email. You can go to each campus to ask for a student's personal email

link: https://www.researchgate.net/

4 Easy Ways to Publish Scopus International Journals for Free

4 Easy Ways to Publish Scopus International Journals for Free

Many academics have difficulty finding Scopus indexed journals. One of the problems is the access fee applied by a number of publishers. In fact, you can also get it for free. How to? Check out the easy ways to publish Scopus international journals for free below.

The Easy Way to Publish Scopus International Journals

The following is the easiest way so that you can publish a scientific journal that has been created.

1. Get to know more about Scopus

Before getting into how to publish a Scopus journal, you should know more about Scopus itself. Really, what is a Scopus indexed international journal? How is the process of submitting articles to international journals? Here's the answer.

Scopus is a referral portal that presents various research results of high reputation from academics around the world. Every research journal that is included in the Scopus list has gone through a rigorous curation stage. Starting from the search for originality, research time, to the quality of writing.

Wednesday, October 20, 2021

Diagnostic Medical Sonographer

Diagnostic Medical Sonographer

What exactly does a diagnostic medical sonographer do all day long?

A diagnostic medical sonographer, also known as a sonographer, is a medical professional who uses imaging equipment and soundwaves to create images of various parts of the body, known as ultrasounds, for diagnosis and treatment. They have received specialized training in the acquisition and analysis of sonographic images. These images are used to assist doctors in the diagnosis and treatment of a variety of medical conditions.

Because ultrasound is a non-invasive method of visualizing internal organs, it is frequently used as the first imaging test when a disease is discovered or suspected. In this context, diagnostic medical sonographers play an important role in the administration and interpretation of initial imaging tests that may help narrow down a patient's diagnosis and expedite the delivery of necessary medical care to the patient.

The scope of the practice

The following are examples of typical job duties, roles, and responsibilities for a diagnostic medical sonographer:

  • Operation of imaging equipment, as well as examination of images to ensure that they are of high quality and useful for diagnosis
  • Differentiating between normal and abnormal imaging results, communicating a summary of the results to physicians or other health-care professionals, and alerting physicians to urgent problems are all responsibilities of radiologists.
  • Prepare patients for procedures and keep them informed throughout the ultrasound examination
  • Patient medical history review, recording imaging results in patient records, and coordinating care with various departments within the hospital or clinic are all examples of what this position entails.

Doctors, nurses, and patients of all ages, from infants to the elderly, collaborate with diagnostic medical sonographers in their work. Magnetic resonance imaging technologists and radiation technologists, both of whom assist with the performance and interpretation of MRI scans and X-rays, respectively, play similar roles in the diagnostic imaging field.


Diagnostic medical sonographers can specialize in a wide range of fields depending on their training. A vascular technologist, for example, is someone who creates images of blood vessels. Obstetric and gynecologic sonographers are someone who specializes in imaging the female reproductive system. Other specialized sonographers may specialize in imaging the abdomen, the musculoskeletal system, or blood vessels, among other areas of expertise. An echocardiographer is a sonographer who specializes in imaging the heart. They provide visualizations of patients' heart valves and cardiac arteries, and they are also known as cardiac sonographers. However, while some employers may prefer highly specialized sonographers, many general sonographer positions will require imaging experience in a number of different fields.

In the workplace, there is an atmosphere of respect and consideration for others.

When working in a hospital or clinic, diagnostic medical sonographers are frequently found performing ultrasound procedures at the bedside of patients, but they may also be found working with imaging machines in a dedicated room within the facility. Depending on their employer, most diagnostic medical sonographers work full-time, though some may be required to work evenings, weekends, and holidays in addition to their regular hours. The position frequently requires you to be on your feet for the majority of the workday.

While diagnostic medical sonographers are most often found in hospitals, they can also find work in doctor's offices, medical and diagnostic labs, and other places of employment. Diagnostic medical sonographers perform similar tasks whether they work in hospitals, clinics, or specialized laboratories. If they work for a large hospital or health system, however, they may be exposed to a wider range of disease states or may be able to specialize in certain areas.

Becoming a diagnostic medical sonographer is a rewarding career.

Medical diagnostic sonographers who are successful in their careers have a strong understanding of anatomy and a keen eye for subtle changes in imaging results. They also have a passion for anatomy, are detail-oriented, and pay close attention to imaging protocols. It is necessary to have good interpersonal skills when working with a variety of patient populations and when communicating imaging results to other health care professionals. Working as a medical diagnostic sonographer may be an excellent choice for those who want to gain highly technical skills while also interacting with others on a daily basis. The position requires a combination of focused medical knowledge, hand-eye coordination, and a strong desire to see that patients receive the medical treatment they require.

Requirements for postsecondary education

There are a variety of educational paths that one can take to become a diagnostic medical sonographer. Following high school, the typical path includes the following steps:

  • Obtaining an associate or bachelor's degree, with coursework in the sciences and anatomy, is a good starting point for this career.
  • Obtaining a certificate in diagnostic medical sonography after completing the program. Diagnostic medical sonography certificate programs include both educational courses that are specific to diagnostic medical sonography training and clinical experiences. Certificate programs are offered through a variety of institutions, including colleges, universities, and teaching hospitals.

Obtaining certification as a diagnostic medical sonographer is essential.

In addition, many employers require candidates to have completed a professional sonography certification as well as basic life support training, or to complete certification within a short period of time after being hired, before being considered. Certification for sonographers is available from a number of organizations, including the American Registry for Diagnostic Medical Sonographers (ARDMS), Cardiovascular Credentialing International, and the American Registry of Radiologic Technologists. Diagnostic medical sonographers who have received advanced certifications will typically practice under the title of registered diagnostic medical sonographer (RDMS), although some may choose to practice under the title of certified diagnostic medical sonographer (CDMS).

A diagnostic medical sonographer's job prospects are favorable.

With an aging population, there will be an increased demand for medical conditions to be diagnosed using affordable imaging technology. In order to provide an alternative to radiation imaging techniques, sonographers will be required. The Bureau of Labor Statistics anticipates that this profession will grow at a rate significantly faster than the national average over the next decade. In the United States, the average salary for a diagnostic medical sonographer is $75,900, with the amount earned depending on experience, certification, and geographic location.

Some sonographers may advance to supervisory positions or become advanced sonographers as a result of additional training and educational opportunities. Some sonographers will be able to advance their careers by earning an advanced degree and working as educators or researchers.

What Is Sonography and How Does It Work? When it comes to sonography and ultrasound, what is the difference?

What Is Sonography and How Does It Work? When it comes to sonography and ultrasound, what is the difference?

Sonography is a medical imaging technique that creates images of internal body structures by using high-frequency sound waves to create the images. Sonography is also referred to as ultrasound in some circles. Ultrasound imaging is the second most commonly used diagnostic imaging technique, after X-ray imaging.

A medical condition can be diagnosed more accurately when the internal body structure can be seen in all of its dimensions, including its size, shape, and density. As a result, if the tissue is denser and harder, it will bounce more high-frequency sound waves back to the transducer, resulting in a brighter sonogram image. A transducer is a device that emits ultrasound waves and is used in the field of sonography. The high-frequency sound waves emitted by the transducer are inaudible because of their frequency.

What is the reason for this?

Sonography is used for a variety of applications. A skin incision is not required for this imaging technique, which is used for examining the abdomen. An abdominal ultrasound test can be used to diagnose the following conditions:

  • Kidney stone
  • Gallstone
  • Liver disease
  • Aortic aneurysm
  • Enlarged organ

During pregnancy, sonography is frequently used to evaluate the development of the fetus. It can also be used to determine the location, age, and number of fetuses in a pregnancy, as well as the likelihood of birth defects.

Sunday, October 17, 2021

Golden Milk, The Contemporary Drink That Supports Body Health

Golden Milk, The Contemporary Drink That Supports Body Health

Golden milk is another term for a milk drink mixed with turmeric. Indonesians usually call turmeric milk. Although this traditional drink has been around for a long time, golden milk is now a trend as a health drink.

In its presentation, golden milk usually contains not only milk and turmeric , but also spices, such as cinnamon, cardamom , and ginger, to make the taste unique and delicious. This herb is often drunk to help increase endurance.

Recognize the Benefits of Consuming Golden Milk

Your Kitchen Provides Natural Cough Medicine Ingredients

Your Kitchen Provides Natural Cough Medicine Ingredients

Cough is a mild disease, but can be very annoying. Luckily, natural cough remedies don't have to look far, because some of them may be available in your kitchen.

One of the most significant effects of a coughing attack is reduced rest time. Coughing aims to clear the respiratory tract that is disturbed due to irritation, but still it is quite disturbing. Although coughing is actually normal, if it occurs for a prolonged period it can be a symptom of certain medical conditions, such as  allergies , viral or bacterial infections, and inflammation of the respiratory tract.

Natural Cough Medicine in the Kitchen

Not Just Lack Of Sleep, Here Are 8 Causes Of Panda Eyes That You Need To Know

Not Just Lack Of Sleep, Here Are 8 Causes Of Panda Eyes That You Need To Know

Panda eyes or dark circles under the eyes are often associated with sleep deprivation. However, lack of sleep is not the only cause of this condition. People who are dehydrated, aging, or suffering from certain diseases can also experience panda eyes.

Panda eyes can be experienced by anyone, both men and women. This condition is characterized by the eye bags that appear darker than the color of the facial skin . People who have panda eyes will look tired and older than their actual age.

Various Causes of Panda Eyes

Panda eye conditions can be caused by many things, including:

1. Lack of sleep

When you are sleep deprived, blood is not able to flow properly to the area around the eyes. As a result, blood that accumulates under the eyes can be seen because the skin in this area is very thin.

In addition to panda eyes, lack of sleep also makes the eyes look swollen and the facial appearance becomes dull .

2. Age factor

As we age, the skin becomes thinner and thinner. Slowly, the skin also begins to lose its elasticity. When this condition occurs, the blood vessels under the eyes will be more clearly visible so that panda eyes appear.

3. The habit of staring at the screen

Staring at a television, computer, or mobile phone screen for long periods of time can cause eye strain. This condition makes the blood vessels around the eyes dilate. As a result, the skin around the eyes becomes dark.

4. Genetic factors

Panda eyes can also be passed down in families, for example from parents to their children. In addition, people who have darker skin are also more at risk of developing panda eyes.

5. Dehydration

When the body is dehydrated or dehydrated , the skin under the eyes will look sunken and dull. This can also trigger the appearance of panda eyes.

6. The habit of smoking and drinking alcohol

Unhealthy lifestyles, such as smoking and alcohol consumption , can also cause panda eyes.

The effects of consuming alcohol and smoking, over time can make the blood flow in the facial skin becomes not smooth so that the circles around the eyes look darker like panda eyes.

In addition, smoking can also trigger the breakdown of collagen which makes the skin sagging and duller.

7. Sunlight display

Sun exposure can trigger the body to produce more melanin , the pigment that makes the skin darker. Exposure to sunlight that hits the eyes can cause pigmentation in the skin around the eyes, so that the color becomes darker.

8. Allergies

Allergic reactions and dry eyes can trigger dark circles. When you have an allergy, your body releases histamine in response to an allergy trigger. Histamine can cause blood vessels to dilate and become more visible, including under the eyes.

How to Overcome Panda Eyes

There are several ways you can do to treat panda eyes, including:

1. Eye compress

One way to get rid of panda eyes is to apply cold compresses to the eyes. The trick, wrap the ice cubes with a clean cloth. Next, close your eyes and place the cold compress for 20 minutes.

Cold compresses can reduce the dilation and discoloration of the blood vessels under the eyes.

2. Get enough sleep

Not only lack of sleep, too much sleep can also cause panda eyes. Therefore, get enough rest every night for 7-9 hours for adults.

3. Avoid smoking, caffeine and alcoholic beverages

Stop smoking or limit the consumption of caffeinated and alcoholic beverages, because all three can trigger dehydration which makes the area under the eyes dark.

4. Use cream

To treat panda eyes, you can also use a cream that contains retinol , caffeine, or vitamin C which can lighten dark circles under the eyes.

5. Cover it with makeup

The use of concealer under the eyes can also disguise panda eyes. Choose a concealer that matches your skin tone and apply a thin layer.

6. Wear sunglasses

To prevent the formation of panda eyes due to sun exposure, you can use sunglasses when you are outdoors.

7. Avoid rubbing your eyes

If you have an allergic reaction or feel itchy in your eyes, don't rub them. Avoid things that can trigger allergy symptoms and visit a doctor to get the right treatment.

If panda eyes don't fade or get worse after doing the various methods above, you should consult a doctor . The doctor will prescribe a special cream or recommend additional treatments, such as exfoliation or laser therapy, to treat panda eyes.