Central Chemistry

How to Search for International Journals on Google Scholar

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Thursday, October 7, 2021

Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

ARDS or acute respiratory distress syndrome is a severe respiratory disorder caused by a buildup of fluid in the alveoli or the small air sacs in the lungs. The main symptoms are severe shortness of breath and difficulty breathing.

ARDS is often caused by a critical illness, such as sepsis or severe pneumonia. One of the causes of pneumonia which is currently becoming a pandemic is the Corona virus (COVID-19). According to a number of studies, some COVID-19 patients may develop ARDS in the course of their illness.

ARDS is an emergency condition that threatens the life of the sufferer, so it needs to be treated quickly and appropriately.

Penyebab Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

ARDS is caused by damage to the alveoli due to the seepage of fluid from the capillaries in the lungs into the alveoli. Alveoli are air sacs in the lungs that function to deliver oxygen to the blood and remove carbon dioxide from the blood.

Under normal conditions, the membrane that protects the capillaries keeps fluid in the blood vessels. However, in ARDS, severe injury or illness causes damage to these protective membranes, allowing fluid to leak into the alveoli.

This buildup of fluid makes the lungs unable to fill with air, so the supply of oxygen to the bloodstream and body is reduced. This lack of oxygen supply will cause the cessation of organ function, including the brain and kidneys. If left unchecked, this condition will threaten the life of the sufferer.

Some of the conditions and diseases that can cause ARDS are:

  • Sepsis
  • Injuries to the head or chest, for example from a collision or accident
  • Severe pneumonia (lung infection)
  • Burns
  • Inhalation of harmful substances, such as concentrated fumes or chemical fumes
  • Choking or near drowning
  • Receiving a blood transfusion with a large volume of blood
  • Pancreatitis

Faktor Risiko Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome



Achondroplasia is a bone growth disorder characterized by a stunted and disproportionate body. This condition is one of the most common bone growth disorders.

Patients with achondroplasia have a normal breastbone size, but the size of the arms and legs is short, causing the patient to have a stunted body ( dwarfism ).

The average height of adult male patients with achondroplasia is 131 cm, while that of adult women is 124 cm. Despite having different physical conditions, achondroplasia sufferers have a normal level of intelligence like people in general.

Causes of Achondroplasia

Achondroplasia occurs due to a genetic mutation in the FGFR3 gene, the gene that produces the Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 3 protein This protein plays an important role in the process of ossification or the process of changing cartilage into hard bone.

Mutations in the FGFR3 gene cause the protein to not function properly, thereby interfering with the transformation of cartilage into hard bone. As a result, the bones grow shorter and have an abnormal shape, especially the bones in the arms and legs.

FGFR3 gene mutations in patients with achondroplasia can occur in two ways, namely:

Spontaneous mutations

Lung Abscess

Lung Abscess

A lung abscess is a bacterial infection of the lungs that causes the appearance of pus. The main symptom of a lung abscess is a cough with phlegm. Sputum that is released often contains blood or pus, and smells bad.

Lung abscesses are treated with antibiotics. Patients are required to take antibiotics for several weeks until the infection subsides. Patients who are well treated have a high cure rate. On the other hand, if not treated properly, this disease can lead to complications or even death.

Causes of Lung Abscess

The main cause of lung abscess is the emergence of infection in the lung tissue due to liquid or food containing bacteria directly into the lungs. This event occurs when a person is unconscious due to the influence of alcohol or drugs, especially tranquilizers.

In addition to being caused by foreign fluid entering the lungs, lung abscesses can be a complication of other diseases, both inside and outside the lungs, namely:

  • The presence of blockage of the airways in the lungs, due to tumors or enlarged glands in the lungs
  • Pneumonia , specifically pneumonia caused by bacteria
  • Bronchiectasis , namely widening, thickening, and damage to the respiratory tract tissue before the lungs (bronchus)
  • Cystis fibrosis , which is a respiratory disease that causes the mucus in the respiratory tract or phlegm to become thicker. The thicker mucus fluid will block the flow of breath from or to the lungs, so that it can trigger an infection that forms phlegm
  • Peritonitis, which is an infection of the lining of the abdominal cavity (peritoneum)
  • Endocarditis, which is an infection of the inner wall of the heart

Lung Abscess Risk Factors

Tooth Abscess

Tooth Abscess

A tooth abscess is the formation of a pus-filled pocket or lump on the tooth. Tooth abscess is caused by a bacterial infection. This condition can appear around the root of the tooth or in the gums.

Bacterial infections that cause tooth abscesses generally occur in people with poor dental hygiene and health. The pus that collects in the lump will gradually increase in pain.

This disease can be prevented by brushing your teeth regularly or flossing your teeth. To avoid tooth decay and abscess, it is recommended to regularly check your teeth to  the dentist .

Tooth abscesses are divided into several types. The following are the three most common types of tooth abscess:

  • Periapical abscess, which is an abscess that appears at the tip of the root of the tooth.
  • Periodontal abscess, which is an abscess that appears on the gum next to the tooth root and can spread to the surrounding tissue and bone.
  • Gingival abscess, which is an abscess that appears on the gum.

Symptoms of Tooth Abscess

The main symptom of a tooth abscess is the appearance of pain that can come on suddenly and can get worse in the tooth or gums. Some of the other symptoms that can be felt by people with tooth abscess are:

Retinal detachment

Retinal detachment

Retinal detachment is an eye disease caused by the detachment of the thin layer inside the eye called the retina. This condition is classified as an emergency and can cause permanent blindness if not treated immediately.

The retina of the eye is an important part that functions to process the light that is captured by the eye. Once captured, the light is converted into an electrical signal and transmitted to the brain. These signals are then processed in the brain and interpreted as images seen by the eye.

If the retina is detached from its position, of course vision will be disturbed. This visual impairment can occur partially or completely, depending on how much of the retina is detached. Retinal detachment can happen to anyone, especially people over the age of 50.

Symptoms of Retinal Ablation

Retinal detachment or retinal detachment is painless. Loss of vision can occur suddenly, or be preceded by any of the following symptoms:

  • Black spots appear that appear to float in the vision ( floaters ).
  • Blurred vision or obscured by curtain -like shadows.
  • The field of view narrows .
  • Flash of light on vision (photopsia).

Causes of Retinal Ablation

Retinal detachment occurs when the retina of the eye detaches from the blood vessels that deliver oxygen and nutrients. The following are 3 conditions that can cause retinal detachment:

  • There is a small tear in the retina . This tear allows fluid in the center of the eyeball (vitreous fluid) to seep in and build up behind the retina. Fluid that accumulates will make the entire retinal layer detached from its base. In general, tears in the retina of the eye occur due to changes in tissue with age. People with short-sightedness (nearsightedness) or have had cataract surgery are also at risk for retinal tears.
  • Accumulation of vitreous fluid without a tear in the retina . This condition can be caused by injury, tumors, inflammation, and macular degeneration .
  • Scar tissue forms on the surface of the retina . This condition makes the retina retract and detach. This condition is more common in diabetics with poorly controlled blood sugar.

Retinal Ablation Risk Factors



Abacavir is an antiviral drug to treat HIV infection. The use of this drug should be accompanied by other anti- HIV drugs to maximize their effectiveness. Abacavir cannot cure HIV, but only slows the progression of HIV infection.

Abacavir works by inhibiting the process of replication or reproduction of the HIV virus, so that the amount of HIV virus in the blood decreases. This way of working can improve the immune system of people with HIV and reduce the risk of complications and diseases associated with HIV/AIDS infection, such as Kaposi's sarcoma or cancer.

What is Abacavir

The groupPrescription drugs
CategoryAntivirus nucleoside reverse transciptase inhibitors (NRTIs)
BenefitSlows the progression of HIV infection
Consumed byAdults and children aged 3 months
Abacavir for pregnant and lactating womenCategory C: Animal studies have shown adverse effects on the fetus, but there are no controlled studies in pregnant women. The drug should only be used if the expected benefit outweighs the risk to the fetus. Abacavir is absorbed into breast milk. Breastfeeding mothers should not take this medicine.
Drug formCaplet

Precautions Before Taking Abacavir

Abacavir should not be used carelessly and must be in accordance with a doctor's prescription. Some things to consider before taking this drug are:

  • Do not take abacavir if you are allergic to this drug. Always tell your doctor about any allergies you have.
  • Tell your doctor if you have severe liver disease, such as cirrhosis and liver failure , or have been diagnosed with a genetic variation called HLA-B*570. Abacavir should not be used by patients with these conditions.
  • Tell your doctor if you have heart and blood vessel disease, such as hypertension or have a condition that can increase your risk of developing heart disease, such as having high cholesterol , diabetes, or smoking .
  • Tell your doctor if you are taking any supplements, herbal remedies, or medications, including if you have previously taken other HIV medications.
  • Tell your doctor if you are pregnant, breastfeeding, or planning a pregnancy.
  • Tell your doctor that you are taking abacavir if you plan to have dental treatment or surgery.
  • See your doctor right away if you experience a drug allergic reaction , overdose, or serious side effect after taking abacavir.

Dosage and Rules for Use of Abacavir

People with Gout and Cholesterol, Avoid These Foods and Drinks

People with Gout and Cholesterol, Avoid These Foods and Drinks

Gout and high cholesterol are health disorders that are generally interrelated. If you have high cholesterol, the risk of suffering from gout is also higher. To control uric acid and cholesterol levels in the body, there are some foods that you should avoid.

Gout is an inflammation of the joints characterized by pain, swelling, and stiffness in the joints, especially in the big toe. This disease is caused by the formation of crystals in body tissues, because the body produces too much uric acid.

The combination of heredity, hormones, and consumption of certain foods is thought to be the main cause of a person suffering from gout. However, there are also diseases that can increase the risk of gout and one of them is cholesterol.

Gout and cholesterol are both triggered by the consumption of certain foods and drinks. Therefore, you need to know what foods or drinks to avoid when diagnosed with gout and cholesterol.

Types of Foods and Drinks Trigger Uric Acid and High Cholesterol

One way to keep uric acid and cholesterol levels in the blood stable is to live a healthy lifestyle, including maintaining a healthy diet and exercising regularly. Well, there are several types of foods that can increase uric acid and cholesterol in the blood, including:

1. Offal

Patients with gout and cholesterol are advised to avoid consuming offal, such as gizzard, tripe, gravel, liver, kidney, intestine, and brain, because they contain high purines.

Purines are certain chemical compounds in some foods that turn into uric acid when broken down in the body.

Although the liver is known to contain high iron, people with gout and cholesterol should still avoid consuming liver because it can trigger an increase in blood cholesterol.

2. Seafood (seafood)

Seafood or seafood, such as anchovies, sardines, tuna, tuna, and shellfish, contain high purines. Lobster also has a high cholesterol content, so it should be avoided by people with gout and cholesterol.

In 85 grams of lobster contained 125 mg of cholesterol. This cholesterol content will increase if you eat lobster by frying it.

Not Just Sweet, Recognize Foods That Increase Blood Sugar

Not Just Sweet, Recognize Foods That Increase Blood Sugar

Many people think that foods that can increase blood sugar are only sweet foods. However, it is not limited to that. There are various other types of foods that can also cause your blood sugar to spike high.

Blood sugar comes from the food we eat and acts as a source of energy for the body. However, if blood sugar levels are too high, this can be dangerous, especially if you or a member of your family has type 2 diabetes.

If blood sugar levels are not controlled properly, problems can occur in the eyes, kidneys, heart, and blood vessels throughout your body. Therefore, it is important to limit blood sugar levels through the food you consume.

Some Types of Foods That Increase Blood Sugar

Most blood sugar is produced from foods that are high in sugar and carbohydrates. Sugar in food can be absorbed directly by the intestines and becomes blood sugar. Meanwhile, carbohydrates will be broken down first into simpler forms, namely sugar, before being absorbed by the intestines into the blood.

Below are some foods and drinks that you may not think can increase blood sugar levels:

1. White rice

A study found that people who consume white rice in excess tend to be more at risk of developing type 2 diabetes. This is because white rice is a type of high-carbohydrate and low-fiber food so it can be converted quickly into sugar and absorbed into the blood.

To prevent this risk, you are recommended to replace white rice with brown rice which is higher in fiber.

2. White bread

 This is a list of foods that enhance and enhance the quality of breast milk that you should know

This is a list of foods that enhance and enhance the quality of breast milk that you should know

There may be times when Busui finds that the milk that comes out is not smooth enough, thus making Busui worried if the amount of breast milk is not enough for the little one. To overcome these concerns, pregnant women can try several ways, one of which is by consuming foods that promote breast milk.

Breast milk is the main food for your baby in the first few years of life. This is because the nutrients contained in breast milk have been adapted to the needs of the little one to support growth and development and health conditions. Breast milk is also proven to protect your little one from various diseases.

Breast milk production works on the principle of supply and demand. The process of natural milk production begins when the mother gets a stimulus in the form of a baby sucking on the nipple or when the mother's breast is expressed. Therefore, breastfeeding your little one regularly or often pumping breast milk can stimulate milk production by itself.

However, Busui's milk production may sometimes be stagnant and not smooth. This can happen for several reasons, such as stress, malnutrition, to the way of breastfeeding or improper attachment of the baby's mouth to the nipple.

When experiencing these obstacles, there are several ways to launch and increase breast milk production that Busui can try, for example by consuming breast milk smoothing foods.

Breastfeeding Smoothing Foods for Your Little One's Growth

During breastfeeding, Busui needs to consume about 500 calories more so that milk production remains smooth. This intake can be obtained by eating a balanced nutritious diet plus drinking enough water (about 8-10 glasses per day).

However, if Busui feels that breast milk production is not running smoothly, Busui can consume the following types of breast milk smoothing foods:

1. Katuk leaves

Katuk leaf or Sauropus androgynus is one of the traditional breastfeeding foods that has long been used by the people of Indonesia.

Leaves that can be consumed raw or cooked contain lots of antioxidants, protein, fiber, as well as vitamins and minerals, such as B vitamins, vitamin C, potassium, iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, and zinc.

 Various Benefits of Guava for Body Health

Various Benefits of Guava for Body Health

Who has never tasted the pleasure of red guava juice or white guava spicy salad. Besides being delicious to eat, it turns out that guava also has various health benefits. To find out, let's look at the discussion about the benefits of guava below.

Guava is a plant that comes from countries in Central America, such as Mexico, Brazil, Colombia, and Venezuela. This fruit, also called guava, has now been widely cultivated and can be enjoyed in many tropical and subtropical countries, such as Indonesia. Guava is rich in vitamin C, vitamin A, as well as potassium, and antioxidants such as lycopene. In addition, guava also contains other nutrients, such as fiber, iron, protein, magnesium, and folate, although in small amounts.

Various Benefits of Guava

Here are some of the benefits of guava that you need to know, such as:

Protects the body from free radicals

The content of vitamin C in guava acts as an antioxidant, which is useful for protecting the body from cell damage caused by free radicals. Many experts believe that free radicals are one of the factors that trigger the development of cancer. This antioxidant content is not only found in guava fruit, but also in the leaves.

Smooth the digestive tract

 A Line of Food Options for Nursing Mothers Vegetarians

A Line of Food Options for Nursing Mothers Vegetarians

Many think that vegetarian breastfeeding mothers will definitely lack nutrition for themselves and their babies. In fact, the nutritional needs of vegetarian mothers can, really, be met with the right food choices. Let's take a look at the following food choices for vegetarian breastfeeding mothers.

A vegetarian is someone who avoids eating all kinds of meat and animal products, so that most of his nutritional intake is limited to plants. Even so, there are some vegetarian groups who still eat eggs or dairy products.

In order for babies to grow up healthy and strong, breastfeeding mothers are encouraged to eat a variety of nutritious foods. Adequate nutritional intake is also important for the mother's energy source during breastfeeding and to help the mother's body recover after giving birth.

These are the nutrients that breastfeeding mothers must fulfill every day

Due to the limited food choices, vegetarians usually lack the intake of several nutrients, such as protein and vitamin B12, which are generally obtained from animals. However, the need for these nutrients must still be met, especially for breastfeeding mothers.

Fortunately, nowadays there are many studies that reveal the nutritional content of foodstuffs, including those from plants. Actually, there are many plant-based foods that can be an option to meet daily nutritional intake, you know.

However, breastfeeding mothers should pay more attention to whether the nutritional intake of the food they eat is sufficient for their needs. If you are a vegetarian who is breastfeeding, here are the various nutrients that you must fulfill every day:

1. Protein

Protein is needed by breastfeeding mothers and babies to build and repair tissues in the body, produce enzymes and hormones, help the growth of healthy hair and nails, help the process of bone and muscle formation, and support the baby's growth and development.

Wednesday, October 6, 2021

Diluting Concentrated Solutions

Diluting Concentrated Solutions

For convenience, chemicals are sometimes bought and stored as concentrated solutions, which are then diluted before use. Aqueous hydrochloric acid, for example, is sold commercially as a 12.0 M solution, yet it is most commonly used in the laboratory after dilution with water to a final concentration of either 6.0 M or 1.0 M.

Concentrated solution Solvent → Dilute solution


The main thing to remember when diluting a concentrated solution is that the number of moles of solute is constant; only the volume of the solution is changed by adding more solvent. Because the number of moles of solute can be calculated by multiplying molarity times volume, we can set up the following equation:


where Mi is the initial molarity, Vi is the initial volume, Mf is the final molarity, and Vf is the final volume after dilution. Rearranging this equation into a more useful form shows that the molar concentration after dilution (Mf) can be found by multiplying the initial concentration (Mi) by the ratio of initial and final volumes (Vi > Vf):