Agranulocytosis is a condition when the bone marrow fails to form granulocytes, which are a type of white blood cell that fights infection. Agranulocytosis must be treated immediately because it can cause serious, even life-threatening complications.

Granulocytes are a group of white blood cells consisting of neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils. Of the three types of cells, neutrophils are the most abundant in the blood. Therefore, neutrophils are used as a benchmark for the diagnosis of agranulocytosis.

Under normal circumstances, the bone marrow is able to form 1,500 neutrophils per microliter of blood. Whereas in agranulocytosis, the absolute neutrophil count is less than 100 per microliter of blood. In this condition, the body will be more susceptible to infection.

Causes of Agranulocytosis

Agranulocytosis can occur due to genetic disorders that are inherited from parents, so the problem has been present since birth. Congenital agranulocytosis is also known as Kostmann syndrome .

In addition to genetic disorders, agranulocytosis can also be caused by certain conditions. The following are some of the conditions that can cause agranulocytosis:

  • Autoimmune diseases, such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis
  • Diseases of the bone marrow, such as aplastic anemia , leukemia, and myelodysplastic syndromes
  • Viral infections, such as viral hepatitis, HIV, and cytomegalovirus (CMV)
  • Bacterial infections, such as typhoid fever and tuberculosis
  • Parasitic infections, such as malaria
  • Exposure to chemical compounds, such as arsenic or mercury
  • Use of certain medications, such as antipsychotic drugs, malaria drugs, NSAIDs , chemotherapy for cancer, and medications for hyperthyroidism

Symptoms of Agranulocytosis

People who have agranulocytosis will be susceptible to infection because of the low number of white blood cells in the body that are responsible for fighting bacteria, viruses, or other disease-causing microorganisms. Symptoms that can appear when a person has agranulotosis are:

  • Fever
  • Weak
  • Dizzy
  • Coughs and colds
  • Hard to breathe
  • Shivering and sweating
  • Rash on the skin
  • Sore throat
  • Canker sores that don't get better
  • Pain in the bones

When to go to the doctor

Consult a doctor if you experience any of the symptoms listed above, especially if you have a condition that can cause agranulocytosis. Also, check with your doctor if you have frequent infections or if your infection is difficult to heal.

Agranulocytosis is a fairly serious condition. If not treated immediately can lead to sepsis and death.

Diagnosis Agranulositosis

To diagnose, the doctor will ask about the symptoms experienced, the patient's medical history, then proceed with a physical examination. If a patient is suspected of having agranulocytosis, the doctor will perform the following additional tests to confirm the diagnosis:

  • Complete blood cell count, to check the total number of blood cells, especially white blood cells
  • An absolute neutrophil count, as a follow-up to a complete blood cell count
  • Bone marrow aspiration , to check the condition of the tissue that produces blood cells
  • Genetic testing, to determine the possibility of a genetic disease that causes agranulocytosis

Agranulocytosis Treatment

Treatment of agranulocytosis will be tailored to the cause. Some treatment options that can be given by doctors to treat agranulocytosis are:

  • Giving antibiotics
    Antibiotics will be prescribed by the doctor depending on the severity of the infection. In patients with agranulocytosis with very low neutrophil counts, antibiotics can be given prior to infection to reduce the risk of severe infection.
  • Injecting granulocyte olony- timulating actor (G-CSF)
    G-CSF is given by injection under the skin of the patient. This is done to stimulate the bone marrow to produce more granulocytes.
  • Administration of immunosuppressants
    If agranulocytosis is caused by an autoimmune disease, the doctor will prescribe drugs that suppress the body's excessive immune response.
  • Transplant umsum reset
    If it can not be treated with medication, the doctor will perform a bone marrow transplant . This procedure is generally performed on patients under 40 years of age with good organ function.

If the agranulocytosis is caused by certain medications, the doctor may stop the medication, adjust the dose, or replace the medication with an alternative.

Complications of Agranulocytosis

If not treated properly, agranulositis can lead to sepsis . Sepsis is an infection reaction that can make blood pressure drop drastically and damage to many organs. This condition is a dangerous condition and can lead to death.

Prevention of Agranulocytosis

Agranulocytosis cannot be prevented, unless the condition is caused by replaceable drugs. The important thing that needs to be prevented in the condition of agranulocytosis is infection.

You can reduce your risk of infection by avoiding crowded places and foods that have the potential to be exposed to bacteria, such as unwashed or peeled fruit or vegetables. In addition, you also need to pay more attention to the cleanliness of your body.


Aphasia is a communication disorder caused by damage to the brain. This disorder can affect the ability to speak and write, as well as the ability to understand words when reading or listening.

Generally people with aphasia will be wrong in choosing and stringing words into a correct sentence. However, this condition does not affect the level of intelligence and memory of the sufferer.

Aphasia can occur suddenly after a patient has had a stroke or head injury. However, aphasia can also develop gradually if it is caused by a brain tumor or dementia.

Causes of Aphasia

Aphasia is not a disease, but rather a symptom that indicates damage to the part of the brain that regulates language and communication.

One of the most common causes of brain damage that triggers aphasia is stroke. When you have a stroke, the lack of blood flow to the brain causes brain cell death or damage to the part of the brain that processes language. Approximately 25-40% of stroke patients will suffer from aphasia.

Brain damage from a head injury, brain tumor , or encephalitis can also cause aphasia. In these cases, usually aphasia will be accompanied by other disorders, such as impaired memory and impaired consciousness.

In addition, aphasia can occur due to diseases that cause decreased function of brain cells, such as dementia and Parkinson's disease . In this condition, aphasia will develop gradually as the disease progresses.

Gejala Afasia

Symptoms of aphasia can vary, depending on the part of the brain that is damaged and the extent of the damage. Based on the symptoms that appear, aphasia can be divided into several types, namely:

  • Wernicke's aphasia (receptive)
    Wernicke's aphasia is known as receptive aphasia or sensory aphasia . Wernicke's aphasia is usually caused by damage to the brain in the left center. In this aphasia, the sufferer will have difficulty understanding or understanding the words that are heard or read. As a result, the patient will issue sentences or words that are also difficult for the other person to understand.
  • Broca's aphasia (expressive)
    In Broca's aphasia or expressive aphasia or motor aphasia , the patient knows what he wants to convey to the other person, but has difficulty in expressing it. Broca's aphasia is usually caused by damage to the brain on the left front.
  • Global
    aphasia Global aphasia is the most severe aphasia and usually occurs when a person has just had a stroke . Global aphasia is usually caused by extensive damage to the brain. People with global aphasia will have difficulty even not being able to read, write, and understand other people's words.
  • Primary progressive aphasia
    This condition causes a gradual decline in the ability to read, write, speak, and understand conversation. Primary progressive aphasia is rare and difficult to treat.
  • Anomic
    aphasia Patients with anomic aphasia or anomia often have difficulty choosing and finding the right words when writing and speaking.

When to go to the doctor

Since aphasia is a symptom of a more serious condition, see your doctor immediately if you experience any of the above symptoms. A doctor's examination is needed to prevent the condition from getting worse and prevent complications.

Diagnosis of Aphasia

To diagnose aphasia, the doctor will ask the patient's symptoms as well as the patient's and family's medical history, either directly to the patient or to the family accompanying the patient.

After that, a thorough physical examination will be carried out including an examination of the nervous system .

To confirm the diagnosis, the doctor will also perform several supporting examinations below:

  • Communication
    assessment This examination aims to measure the patient's ability to write, read, speak, understand conversation, and verbal expression.
  • Brain
    scan Scanning aims to detect any damage to the brain and see how severe the damage is. The scan can be done with an MRI , CT scan , or using a positron emission tomography (PET scan).

Aphasia Treatment

Treatment of aphasia depends on the type of aphasia, the part of the brain that is damaged, the cause of the brain damage, and the age and condition of the patient. If the brain damage is mild, the aphasia may improve on its own. If the condition is severe enough, treatment can be carried out by the following methods:

Speech therapy

Speech and language therapy sessions aim to improve communication and speaking skills. This therapy session should be done regularly. Speech therapy can be done using technology such as computer programs or applications. This therapy is recommended for patients with aphasia due to stroke.


Some types of drugs can also be given by the doctor to help treat aphasia. The drugs given usually work by increasing blood flow to the brain, preventing further brain damage, and increasing the amount of chemical compounds that are reduced in the brain.


Surgical procedures may also be performed if the aphasia is caused by a brain tumor. Surgery aims to remove tumors in the brain. This procedure is expected to help with aphasia.

Complications Aphasia

Because it affects the ability to communicate, aphasia can have an impact on the daily life of the sufferer, including in terms of work and personal relationships. If not treated properly, aphasia can also lead to anxiety disorders , depression , and feelings of isolation.

Aphasia Prevention

There is no sure way to prevent aphasia. The best thing that can be done is to prevent conditions that can cause aphasia. Prevention can be done by living a healthy lifestyle, such as:

  • Quit smoking
  • Avoid excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages
  • Maintain ideal body weight and avoid obesity
  • Do exercise regularly for at least 30 minutes every day
  • Keeping the mind active, for example by reading or writing


Adenomyosis or adenomyosis is a condition that occurs when the surface lining of the uterine cavity (endometrium) grows inside the muscular wall of the uterus (myometrium). Under normal conditions, the endometrial tissue should only line the surface of the uterine cavity.

This condition can be experienced by women in all age groups, but is more common in the age of 40-50 years. Although generally considered harmless, adenomyosis can adversely affect the sufferer's quality of life.

When a person has adenomyosis, the endometrial tissue can still function normally. However, due to adenomyosis, the uterus will enlarge, and cause heavy bleeding and pain in the lower abdomen.

Symptoms of Adenomyosis

Some people with adenomyosis do not experience any symptoms. Sometimes there can be discomfort in the lower abdomen or pelvis, but only for a moment. While in other patients, adenomyosis can cause symptoms, namely:

  • Heavy and prolonged bleeding during menstruation ( menorrhagia ).
  • Menstrual pain ( dysmenorrhea ).
  • A feeling of pressure in the lower abdomen or pelvis, due to the enlargement of the uterus.

When to go to the doctor

Actinic Keratosis (Solar Keratosis)

Solar keratosis or actinikeratosis is a condition in which the skin becomes rough , thickened, and scaly, due to exposure to sunlight for a long time or use of tanning to discolor the skin .

Solar keratosis is generally experienced by someone aged 40 years and over and people who are often active in the sun for a long time. Actinic keratosis develops slowly and causes no symptoms. Although rare, this condition has the potential to cause skin cancer .

Becauses Actinic Keratosis Solar Keratosis)

Excessive exposure to sunlight (ultraviolet) is the main cause of actinic keratosis. Patients with solar keratosis will be more common in people who often do activities in direct sunlight and people who like to use tanning beds or skin blackening tools .

Risk factors actinic keratosis

Actinic keratosis can affect anyone. Even so, a person is more at risk of developing the condition if:

  • More than 40 years old.
  • Stay in a place that is exposed to sunlight.
  • Have sensitive skin type .
  • Have a weak immune system, for example due to cancer , HIV/AIDS, and the use of chemotherapy drugs or immunosuppressant drugs .

Symptoms Actinic Keratosis Solar Keratosis)

Breast Abscess

A breast ulcer or breast abscess is a lump in the breast that contains pus. Breast abscesses are usually caused by infection. This disease is often experienced by breastfeeding mothers.

If you have a breast abscess, breastfeeding mothers need to get treatment immediately. But don't worry, people with breast abscesses can continue to breastfeed their children with uninfected breasts.

Causes of Breast Abscess

Inflammation of the breast tissue ( mastitis ) that is not treated immediately or caused by a blockage in the breast gland, is the main cause of accumulation of pus ( abscess ) in the breast.

Breast infections can occur for several reasons. One of them is the entry of bacteria from the baby's mouth into the milk ducts through cracks in the nipple. Although it is more common in breastfeeding mothers, non-breastfeeding women and a small percentage of men can develop a breast abscess as well.

There are several factors that increase a person's risk of developing a breast abscess, including:

  • Having piercings in the nipples
  • Have a smoking habit
  • Suffering from diabetes
  • Suffering from HIV/AIDS
  • Have had breast surgery in the last 2 months
  • Have you ever had a breast infection?
  • seniors

Signs and Symptoms of a Breast Abscess

A breast abscess is a lump under the skin that is soft to the touch and can be moved. However, these lumps cannot be palpated if the abscess grows deeper in the breast. Breast abscesses can also usually appear with ulcers in the breast .

Symptoms experienced by people with breast abscess can vary depending on the severity. If you have a breast abscess, a person may experience the following symptoms :

  • Breasts look red, swollen, and feel
  • If palpated, there are lumps that do not disappear after feeding.
  • Discharge of pus from the nipple.
  • Breast pain continues to interfere with activities.
  • Breast pain causes the mother to be unable to breastfeed her child.
  • Fever for more than 3 days and does not improve despite treatment.

When to go to the doctor

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